Sara H. Kyne

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While ACTH is known to induce skin pigmentation in man, its effects on cultured human melanocytes have not been investigated. Using a culture system free of artificial mitogens, we report for the first time that ACTH stimulates melanogenesis in cultured human melanocytes. While ACTH, alpha-MSH and the synthetic alpha-MSH analogue Nle4DPhe7 alpha-MSH all(More)
Competitive kinetic experiments utilising free radical carbonylation chemistry provide a first estimate for the rate constant for 6-endo cyclization of the 6-aza-7-ethyl-5-hexenoyl radical of (4.8 +/- 2.4) x 10(6) s(-1) at 90 degrees C in benzene, in good agreement with ONIOM-G3(MP2)-CC+COSMO-RS calculations (6.8 x 10(6) s(-1)).
The thermodynamic effective molarities of a series of simple cycloalkenes, synthesised from α,ω-dienes by reaction with Grubbs' second generation precatalyst, have been evaluated. Effective molarities were measured from a series of small scale metathesis reactions and agreed well with empirical predictions derived from the number of rotors and the product(More)
Ab initio and DFT calculations reveal that acyl radicals add to imines and electron-rich olefins through simultaneous SOMO --> pi*, pi --> SOMO, and HOMO --> pi*C=O interactions between the radical and the radicalophile. At the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ//QCISD/cc-pVDZ level, energy barriers of 15.6 and 17.9 kJ mol(-1) are calculated for the attack of the acetyl(More)
N,S-Dimethyldithiocarbamyl oxalates (e.g.6, 10) are novel, readily prepared precursors to alkyloxyacyl radicals 1 that are more suitable for kinetic studies than existing precursors; 10 has allowed the determination of accurate rate data for the cyclization of the butenyloxyacyl radical 5 (kc = 1.2 × 10(7) s(-1) at 21 °C).
Ab initio and DFT calculations reveal that oxyacyl radicals add to imines and electron-rich olefins through simultaneous SOMO-pi*, SOMO-pi and pi*-HOMO interactions between the radical and the radicalophile. At the BHandHLYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level, energy barriers of 20.3 and 22.0 kJ mol(-1) are calculated for the attack of methoxycarbonyl radical at the carbon(More)
There are two chemically distinct types of melanin: the red-yellow phaeomelanins and the brown-black eumelanins. While both melanins have been detected in human epidermis and cultured melanocytes, it is unknown how the phaeomelanin/eumelanin ratio in human melanocytes maintained in vitro relates to that in the epidermis from which they were isolated. This(More)
Ab initio and DFT calculations reveal that both imidoyl and thioyl radicals add to the nitrogen end of methanimine through simultaneous SOMO-π*(imine), SOMO-π(imine), SOMO-LP(N) and π*(radical)-LP(N) interactions between the radical and the imine. At the CCSD(T)/cc-pVDZ//BHandHLYP/cc-pVTZ level of theory, barriers of 13.8 and 26.1 kJ mol(-1) are calculated(More)
It is now well established that radical carbonylation chemistry is useful for the construction of heterocycles. For example, one of us has shown that, unlike alkyl radicals, acyl radicals formed by the reaction of alkyl radicals with carbon monoxide are N-philic and react to form a variety of lactams (Scheme 1). These observations have been rationalised as(More)
Ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations predict that intramolecular homolytic substitution by alkyl radicals at the sulfur atom in sulfinates proceeds through a smooth transition state in which the attacking and leaving radicals adopt a near collinear arrangement. When forming a five-membered ring and the leaving radical is methyl,(More)