Sara Garofalo

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Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) refers to the process of a Pavlovian reward-paired cue acquiring incentive motivational proprieties that drive choices. It represents a crucial phenomenon for understanding cue-controlled behavior, and it has both adaptive and maladaptive implications (i.e., drug-taking). In animals, individual differences in the(More)
Research based on event-related potential (ERP) reported mediofrontal negativities following unexpected negative feedback or performance error. Some authors proposed that these signals reflect reward prediction error for worse than expected outcomes, while others suggested that mediofrontal negativities express medial prefrontal cortex coding for unexpected(More)
Gender differences in social cognition are a long discussed issue, in particular those concerning Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e., the ability to explain and predict other people's mental states. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to test the hypothesis that anodal tDCS over the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) selectively(More)
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ACC have been consistently implicated in learning predictions of future outcomes and signaling prediction errors (i.e., unexpected deviations from such predictions). A computational model of ACC/mPFC posits that these prediction errors should be modulated by outcomes occurring at unexpected times, even if the outcomes(More)
Mediofrontal event-related potential (ERP) components have been extensively reported following performance error or unexpected feedback, and could reflect dopaminergic phasic changes conveyed to medial prefrontal cortex. Recent studies suggest a role for medial prefrontal cortex not only in signaling unexpected feedback but also unexpected timing of(More)
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