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The technology for functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) as a means of providing upper limb function to people with tetraplegia has been under development by three clinical research groups for almost two decades. This paper presents the current status of the clinical trials of three FNS systems: a noninvasive system built into a cosmetic forearm(More)
The timed 'Up & Go' test (TUG) is a test of basic or functional mobility in adults which has rarely been used in children. Functional mobility was defined for this study as an individual's ability to manoeuvre his or her body capably and independently to accomplish everyday tasks. Reliability and validity of TUG scores were examined in 176 children without(More)
The influence of stimulus interpulse interval (IPI) on torque output during electrically-evoked contractions was investigated for the knee extensor muscles of paralyzed subjects. The parameters measured were the rise time, magnitude, and relaxation time of the contraction at stimulus IPI's ranging from 62 to 7 ms. Torque output increased as IPI's were(More)
The increasing number of incomplete cervical spinal cord injuries means that more attention needs to be focused on the rehabilitation of the incomplete quadriplegic hand. A case study, describing the application of electrical stimulation for strengthening the paretic lumbrical muscles, is presented. A 2 week strengthening program resulted in a 33% increase(More)
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