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This paper argues that exceptions and other instances of morpheme-specific phonology are best analyzed in Optimality Theory (OT) in terms of lexically indexed markedness and faithfulness constraints. This approach is shown to capture locality restrictions, distinctions between exceptional and truly impossible patterns, distinctions between blocking and(More)
To study the relationships between amniotic fluid and maternal blood nutrient concentrations, we obtained amniotic fluid and blood samples simultaneously from 76 pregnant women at around 17 weeks gestation. Folate and vitamin B-12 levels were measured by microbiological assay and radioassay, respectively, and zinc, copper and iron levels by atomic(More)
Providing evidence for the universal tendencies of patterns in the world's languages can be difficult, as it is impossible to sample all possible languages, and linguistic samples are subject to interpretation. However, experimental techniques such as artificial grammar learning paradigms make it possible to uncover the psychological reality of claimed(More)
Traditional flat-structured bigram and trigram models of phonotactics are useful because they capture a large number of facts about phonological processes. Additionally, these models predict that local interactions should be easier to learn than long-distance ones because long-distance dependencies are difficult to capture with these models. Long-distance(More)
We analyzed nutrient levels in amniotic fluid obtained during the second trimester of normal, uncomplicated pregnancies from 221 women who delivered apparently healthy infants and from 8 with neural tube defect (NTD) pregnancies. Folate was measured by microbiological assay, vitamin B12 by a radiobinding method, and zinc, copper and iron by atomic(More)
Medical records of 118 newborn infants with Down's syndrome were reviewed to document the types of congenital heart disease (CHD) in those having echocardiography. Of 102 infants having echocardiography, 49 (48%) had heart defects; 47 of these had trisomy 21 and 2 had unbalanced translocation karyotypes. Of the 53 (52%) who did not have heart defects, all(More)
We present three live-born infants with tetraploidy and compare them with two previously reported live-born infants with the same genetic defect. Common anomalies noted included microcephaly; a prominent, narrow forehead; microphthalmia/anophthalmia; cleft palate; orthopedic anomalies; genital ambiguity; and abnormalities of the central nervous system,(More)