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PROBLEM Semen is the primary medium for sexual transmission of HIV-1 and contains high concentrations of TGF-β1, but its role in regulating HIV-mediated immune activation is unclear. METHOD OF(More)
PROBLEM Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a progestin-based hormonal contraceptive designed to mimic progesterone, has been linked to increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) susceptibility.(More)