Sara E. Walker

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Antisera to two putative neurotransmitters, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and molluscan cardioexcitatory tetrapeptide (H-Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2; FMRF-amide), bind specifically to neurites in the inner nuclear and inner plexiform layers of the goldfish retina. Retrograde labeling showed that intraocular axon terminals originate from the nervus(More)
Recently gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRF)-like and molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide (FMRFamide)-like compounds have been colocalized immunocytochemically to the terminal nerve, a presumed olfactoretinal efferent system in goldfish. In the present study these and related neuropeptides were shown to affect ganglion cell activity, recorded(More)
In operant conditioning experiments, two methods are commonly used to motivate laboratory rats to perform designated tasks. The first is restricting food so that rats are forced to lose 20% of body weight within one week, followed by maintenance at 80% of the baseline weight for the remainder of the experiment. The second is restricting access to water to(More)
We have explored the structure and actions of terminal nerve (TN) fibers in the teleostean retina, the most accessible of TN projections. Using immunocytochemistry we have shown that the goldfish TN contains neuropeptides related to the molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide (FMRFamide) as well as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). Retinal TN(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine (1) bone mineral density (BMD) of the axial and appendicular skeleton in men with moderate and severe ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and (2) associations between BMD and bone metabolism variables. METHODS Nineteen men with AS and 19 healthy male controls were evaluated for osteoporosis by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in both the(More)
Six autoimmune murine models (MRL/l, MRL/n, NZB, NZB/NZW, PN, C57BL/6J-lpr/lpr) were compared with normal control C57BL/6J and DBA/2 mice to determine if spontaneous autoimmune disease was associated with evidence of Sjögren's syndrome. Schirmer tests documented dry eyes in NZB/NZW and PN mice; other autoimmune strains and controls had normal tear(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the level of anxiety experienced by individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS Data from 2 previous studies were used to compare the level of anxiety (measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) in the following 4 subgroups: a general RA sample, a general osteoarthritis sample, a sample with both RA and major depression,(More)
The brains of pathogen-free autoimmune MRL/lpr, NZBWF1 and NZB mice were examined for central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in premoribund 8-week-old animals and at ages when active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was present. CNS inflammation was observed only in MRL/lpr mice. Immunohistochemical studies of brains from young MRL/lpr mice found that(More)
To examine the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral pain management program for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, three patient groups were studied: a cognitive-behavioral group (CB), an attention-placebo group, and a control group. The CB group received a comprehensive, 12-month pain management program that taught coping strategies such as(More)
OBJECTIVE To test and cross-validate a model using disease activity, pain, and helplessness to predict future psychological and physical disability in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) across time. METHODS Measures of disease activity, pain, helplessness, psychological function, and physical function were collected from 63 males with RA at baseline,(More)