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Bordetella bronchiseptica is a gram-negative respiratory pathogen that infects a wide range of hosts and causes a diverse spectrum of disease. This diversity is likely affected by multiple factors, such as host immune status, polymicrobial infection, and strain diversity. In a murine model of infection, we found that the virulence of B. bronchiseptica(More)
We have studied the effects of 30 peptides administered intracerebroventricularly on basal and pentagastrin-stimulated (8 micrograms/kg s.c.) gastric acid secretion in conscious dogs. None of the peptides significantly increased basal gastric acid secretion. Twelve peptides (2 nmol/kg) significantly (p less than 0.01) decreased the pentagastrin-stimulated(More)
Immunoreactivity similar to that of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is found in regions of the central nervous system that modulate autonomic responses, including gastrointestinal functions. We examined the central nervous system effects of ovine CRF on gastric acid secretion in conscious dogs. Male beagle dogs (11-13 kg) were fitted with chronic(More)
To determine the mechanisms of action of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in inhibiting gastric acid secretion, we studied awake male beagle dogs fitted with a chronic intracerebroventricular cannula and a gastric fistula. Synthetic rat CGRP (10 pmol/kg to 10 nmol/kg) given intracerebroventricularly or intravenously significantly inhibited(More)
Type VI Secretion Systems (T6SSs) have been identified in numerous gram-negative pathogens, but the lack of a natural host infection model has limited analysis of T6SS contributions to infection and pathogenesis. Here, we describe disruption of a gene within locus encoding a putative T6SS in Bordetella bronchiseptica strain RB50, a respiratory pathogen that(More)
Bordetella parapertussis causes the prolonged coughing illness known as pertussis or whooping cough, persisting for weeks within the respiratory tracts of infected hosts but inducing a very poor T cell response relative to that induced by Bordetella pertussis, the more common cause of pertussis. In this study, we examine the contributions of cytokines(More)
Interleukin-1 receptor-deficient (IL-1R(-/-)) mice are healthy despite being colonized by commensal microbes but are defective in defenses against specific pathogens, suggesting that IL-1R-mediated effects contribute to immune responses against specific pathogenic mechanisms. To better define the role of IL-1R in immunity to respiratory infections, we(More)
The cell envelope of a bacterial pathogen can be damaged by harsh conditions in the environment outside a host and by immune factors during infection. Cell envelope stress responses preserve the integrity of this essential compartment and are often required for virulence. Bordetella species are important respiratory pathogens that possess a large number of(More)
Sensing the environment allows pathogenic bacteria to coordinately regulate gene expression to maximize survival within or outside of a host. Here we show that Bordetella species regulate virulence factor expression in response to carbon dioxide levels that mimic in vivo conditions within the respiratory tract. We found strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica(More)
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) allows for rapid spread of genetic material between species, increasing genetic and phenotypic diversity. Although HGT contributes to adaptation and is widespread in many bacteria, others show little HGT. This study builds on previous work to analyze the evolutionary mechanisms contributing to variation within the locus(More)