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Mechanobiological models have previously been used to predict the time course of the tissue differentiation process, with the local mechanical environment as the regulator of cell activity. However, since the supply of oxygen and nutrients to cells is also a regulator of cell differentiation and oxygen diffusion is limited to few hundred micrometers from(More)
Achieving successful vascularization remains one of the main problems in bone tissue engineering. After scaffold implantation, the growth of capillaries into the porous construct may be too slow to provide adequate nutrients to the cells in the scaffold interior and this inhibits tissue formation in the scaffold core. Often, prior to implantation, a(More)
Mechanical stimuli are one of the factors that influence tissue differentiation. In the development of biomaterials for bone tissue engineering, mechanical stimuli and formation of a vascular network that transport oxygen to cells within the pores of the scaffolds are essential. Angiogenesis and cell differentiation have been simulated in scaffolds of(More)
Inter-species differences in regeneration exist in various levels. One aspect is the dynamics of bone regeneration and healing, e.g. small animals show a faster healing response when compared to large animals. Mechanical as well as biological factors are known to play a key role in the process. However, it remains so far unknown whether different animals(More)
Bone adapts to changes in the local mechanical environment (e.g. strains) through formation and resorption processes. However, the bone adaptation response is significantly reduced with increasing age. The mechanical strains induced within the bone by external loading are determined by bone morphology and tissue material properties. Although it is known(More)
Bone is a tissue with enormous adaptive capacity, balancing resorption and formation processes. It is known that mechanical loading shifts this balance towards an increased formation, leading to enhanced bone mass and mechanical performance. What is not known is how this adaptive response to mechanical loading changes with age. Using dynamic(More)
Dynamic processes modify bone micro-structure to adapt to external loading and avoid mechanical failure. Age-related cortical bone loss is thought to occur because of increased endocortical resorption and reduced periosteal formation. Differences in the (re)modeling response to loading on both surfaces, however, are poorly understood. Combining in-vivo(More)
Bone loss occurs during adulthood in both women and men and affects trabecular bone more than cortical bone. The mechanism responsible for trabecular bone loss during adulthood remains unexplained, but may be due at least in part to a reduced mechanoresponsiveness. We hypothesized that trabecular and cortical bone would respond anabolically to loading and(More)
Eighteen children sustained unilateral phrenic nerve paralysis (PNP) after cardiac surgical procedures. Ten (Group I), under 7 months (mean: 2.9 +/- 2.2), required long-term ventilatory assistance (mean: 23.9 +/- 13.0 days); they failed to be weaned from the ventilator. All underwent diaphragmatic plication (DP). DP was performed late in 7 cases (Group Ia)(More)
Mechanical loading can increase cortical bone mass by shifting the balance between bone formation and resorption towards increased formation. With advancing age resorption outpaces formation resulting in a net loss in cortical bone mass. How cortical bone (re)modeling - especially resorption - responds to mechanical loading with aging remains unclear. In(More)