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Although piano playing is a highly skilled task, basic features of motor pattern generation may be shared across tasks involving fine movements, such as handling coins, fingering food, or using a touch screen. The scripted and sequential nature of piano playing offered the opportunity to quantify the neuromuscular basis of coarticulation, i.e., the manner(More)
During reaching to grasp objects with different shapes hand posture is molded gradually to the object's contours. The present study examined the extent to which the temporal evolution of hand posture depends on continuous visual feedback. We asked subjects to reach and grasp objects with different shapes under five vision conditions (VCs). Subjects wore(More)
Compared with rigid objects, grasping and lifting compliant objects presents additional uncertainties. For any static grasp, forces at the fingertips depend on factors including the locations of the contact points and the contact forces must be coordinated to maintain equilibrium. For compliant objects, the locations and orientations of the contact surfaces(More)
The control of whole hand grasping relies on complex coordination of multiple forces. While many studies have characterized the coordination of finger forces and torques, the control of hand muscle activity underlying multi-digit grasping has not been studied to the same extent. Motor-unit synchrony across finger muscles or muscle compartments might be one(More)
Anatomical and physiological evidence suggests that common input to motor neurons of hand muscles is an important neural mechanism for hand control. To gain insight into the synaptic input underlying the coordination of hand muscles, significant effort has been devoted to describing the distribution of common input across motor units of extrinsic muscles.(More)
Rotation of an object held with three fingers is produced by modulation of force amplitude and direction at one or more contact points. Changes in the moment arm through which these forces act can also contribute to the modulation of the rotational moment. Therefore force amplitude and direction as well as the center of pressure on each contact surface must(More)
We recently examined the extent to which motor units of digit flexor muscles receive common input during multidigit grasping. This task elicited moderate to strong motor-unit synchrony (common input strength, CIS) across muscles (flexor digitorum profundus, FDP, and flexor pollicis longus, FPL) and across FDP muscle compartments, although the strength of(More)
To gain insight into the synergistic control of hand muscles, we have recently quantified the strength of correlated neural activity across motor units from extrinsic digit flexors during a five-digit object-hold task. We found stronger synchrony and coherence across motor units from thumb and index finger flexor muscle compartment than between the thumb(More)
In the past two decades a large number of studies have successfully characterized important features of the kinetics and kinematics of object grasping and manipulation, providing significant insight into how the Central Nervous System (CNS) controls the hand, one of the most complex motor systems, in a variety of behaviors. In this chapter we briefly review(More)
When an object is lifted vertically, the normal force increases and decreases in tandem with tangential (load) force to safely avoid slips. For horizontal object transport, horizontal forces at the contact surfaces can be decomposed into manipulation forces (producing acceleration/deceleration) and grasping forces. Although the grasping forces must satisfy(More)