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The aim of this study was to determine whether CD4(+) IL-17A(+) Th17 cells infiltrate vitiligo skin and to investigate whether the proinflammatory cytokines related to Th17 cell influence melanocyte enzymatic activity and cell fate. An immunohistochemical analysis showed Th17 cell infiltration in 21 of 23 vitiligo skin samples in addition to CD8(+) cells(More)
The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) catalyzes the interconversion between hormonally active cortisol and inactive cortisone within cells. There are two isozymes: 11β-HSD1 activates cortisol from cortisone and 11β-HSD2 inactivates cortisol to cortisone. 11β-HSD1 was recently discovered in skin, and we subsequently found that the enzyme(More)
We report an unusual case of disseminated discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) complicated by pre-existing atopic dermatitis (AD) and late-onset Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Disseminated DLE lesions were sparse on the expected sites for AD, such as the medial region of the extremities or v-neck area. The patient fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AD and SS but(More)
BACKGROUND The precise pathogenesis of alopecia areata remains unknown, although this disease seems to be triggered by helper T cell infiltration in hair follicles. Recent studies of psoriasis and vitiligo have demonstrated the involvement of Th17 cells. Psoriasis and vitiligo occasionally develop concomitantly or inversely in patients with alopecia areata.(More)
Over the past decade, extra-adrenal cortisol production was reported in various tissues. The enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of hormonally inactive cortisone into active cortisol in cells is 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1). We recently reported that 11β-HSD1 is also expressed in keratinocytes and regulates inflammation and keratinocyte(More)
The endogenous glucocorticoid, cortisol, is released from the adrenal gland in response to various stress stimuli. Extra-adrenal cortisol production has recently been reported to occur in various tissues. Skin is known to synthesize cortisol through a de novo pathway and through an activating enzyme. The enzyme that catalyzes the intracellular conversion of(More)
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are one of the most effective anti-inflammatory drugs for treating acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, several studies have shown that GCs alter collagen metabolism in the skin and induce skin atrophy. Cortisol is the endogenous GC that is released in response to various stressors. Over the last decade, extraadrenal(More)