Santosh Philips

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Variants of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene are common in individuals with red hair and fair skin, but the relative contribution to these pigmentary traits in heterozygotes, homozygotes and compound heterozygotes for variants at this locus from the multiple alleles present in Caucasian populations is unclear. We have investigated 174 individuals(More)
OBJECTIVES Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan catabolism, is a key regulator of immune tolerance. We identified genetic variations in the IDO1 gene and evaluated their functional activities using in-vitro transfection studies. METHODS We resequenced the exons and the intron/exon borders of the IDO1 gene in 96 samples(More)
The ESR2 gene encodes the estrogen receptor beta protein. Several studies have shown that genetic variants in the ESR2 gene are associated with a variety of clinical phenotypes. However, very little is known about the functional significance of ESR2 genetic variants. We used a bioinformatics approach to identify regions of the ESR2 promoter that is(More)
We hypothesized that CYP3A5 genotype contributes to the interindividual variability in verapamil response. Healthy subjects (n=26) with predetermined CYP3A5 genotypes were categorized as expressers (at least one CYP3A5(*)1 allele) and nonexpressers (subjects without a CYP3A5(*)1 allele). Verapamil pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were determined after(More)
Up to 25 % of patients discontinue adjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy due to intolerable symptoms. Predictors of which patients will be unable to tolerate these medications have not been defined. We hypothesized that inherited variants in candidate genes are associated with treatment discontinuation because of AI-associated toxicity. We prospectively(More)
Rifampin causes drug interactions by altering hepatic drug metabolism. Because microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to regulate genes involved in drug metabolism, we determined the effect of rifampin on the expression of hepatic miRNAs. Primary human hepatocytes from seven subjects were treated with rifampin, and the expression of miRNA and cytochrome P450(More)
Drug pharmacokinetics parameters, drug interaction parameters, and pharmacogenetics data have been unevenly collected in different databases and published extensively in the literature. Without appropriate pharmacokinetics ontology and a well annotated pharmacokinetics corpus, it will be difficult to develop text mining tools for pharmacokinetics data(More)
The coregulator steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 increases transcriptional activity of the estrogen receptor (ER) in a number of tissues including bone. Mice deficient in SRC-1 are osteopenic and display skeletal resistance to estrogen treatment. SRC-1 is also known to modulate effects of selective ER modulators like tamoxifen. We hypothesized that(More)
BACKGROUND Beyond estrogen receptor (ER), there are no validated predictors for tamoxifen (TAM) efficacy and toxicity. We utilized a genome-wide cell-based model to comprehensively evaluate genetic variants for their contribution to cellular sensitivity to TAM. DESIGN Our discovery model incorporates multidimensional datasets, including genome-wide(More)
PURPOSE Hot flashes are common and frequently lead to drug discontinuation among women prescribed tamoxifen. We determined whether genetic polymorphisms in estrogen receptors (ESRs) alpha and beta (ESR1 and ESR2, respectively) are associated with tamoxifen-induced hot flashes. PATIENTS AND METHODS We determined ESR1 PvuII and XbaI and ESR2-02 genotypes in(More)