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Variants of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene are common in individuals with red hair and fair skin, but the relative contribution to these pigmentary traits in heterozygotes, homozygotes and compound heterozygotes for variants at this locus from the multiple alleles present in Caucasian populations is unclear. We have investigated 174 individuals(More)
The ESR2 gene encodes the estrogen receptor beta protein. Several studies have shown that genetic variants in the ESR2 gene are associated with a variety of clinical phenotypes. However, very little is known about the functional significance of ESR2 genetic variants. We used a bioinformatics approach to identify regions of the ESR2 promoter that is(More)
OBJECTIVES Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan catabolism, is a key regulator of immune tolerance. We identified genetic variations in the IDO1 gene and evaluated their functional activities using in-vitro transfection studies. METHODS We resequenced the exons and the intron/exon borders of the IDO1 gene in 96 samples(More)
Women with reduced CYP2D6 activity have low endoxifen concentrations and likely worse long term benefits from tamoxifen. We investigated the association between CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen-induced hot flashes in a prospective cohort. We collected hot flash frequency and severity data over 12 months from 297 women initiating tamoxifen. We performed CYP2D6(More)
PURPOSE Hot flashes are common and frequently lead to drug discontinuation among women prescribed tamoxifen. We determined whether genetic polymorphisms in estrogen receptors (ESRs) alpha and beta (ESR1 and ESR2, respectively) are associated with tamoxifen-induced hot flashes. PATIENTS AND METHODS We determined ESR1 PvuII and XbaI and ESR2-02 genotypes in(More)
The coregulator steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 increases transcriptional activity of the estrogen receptor (ER) in a number of tissues including bone. Mice deficient in SRC-1 are osteopenic and display skeletal resistance to estrogen treatment. SRC-1 is also known to modulate effects of selective ER modulators like tamoxifen. We hypothesized that(More)
BACKGROUND Change in breast density may predict outcome of women receiving adjuvant hormone therapy for breast cancer. We performed a prospective clinical trial to evaluate the impact of inherited variants in genes involved in oestrogen metabolism and signalling on change in mammographic percent density (MPD) with aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Tamoxifen, a selective oestrogen receptor (ER) modulator, increases bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women and decreases BMD in premenopausal women. We hypothesised that inherited variants in candidate genes involved in oestrogen signalling and tamoxifen metabolism might be associated with tamoxifen effects in bone. METHODS A total(More)
Up to 25 % of patients discontinue adjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy due to intolerable symptoms. Predictors of which patients will be unable to tolerate these medications have not been defined. We hypothesized that inherited variants in candidate genes are associated with treatment discontinuation because of AI-associated toxicity. We prospectively(More)
We hypothesized that CYP3A5 genotype contributes to the interindividual variability in verapamil response. Healthy subjects (n=26) with predetermined CYP3A5 genotypes were categorized as expressers (at least one CYP3A5(*)1 allele) and nonexpressers (subjects without a CYP3A5(*)1 allele). Verapamil pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were determined after(More)