Santhosh V. R. Kumar

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Neutrophil NETosis is an important element of host defense as it catapults chromatin out of the cell to trap bacteria, which then are killed, e.g., by the chromatin’s histone component. Also, during sterile inflammation TNF-alpha and other mediators trigger NETosis, which elicits cytotoxic effects on host cells. The same mechanism should apply to other(More)
Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation contributes to gout, autoimmune vasculitis, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. The outside-in signaling pathway triggering NET formation is unknown. Here, we show that the receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK)-1-stabilizers necrostatin-1 or necrostatin-1s and the mixed lineage kinase domain-like(More)
The clinical category of acute kidney injury includes a wide range of completely different disorders, many with their own pathomechanisms and treatment targets. In this review we focus on the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of acute tubular necrosis (ATN). We approach this topic by first discussing the role of the immune system in the different(More)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) research is limited by the lack of convenient inducible models mimicking human CKD and its complications in experimental animals. We demonstrate that a soluble oxalate-rich diet induces stable stages of CKD in male and female C57BL/6 mice. Renal histology is characterized by tubular damage, remnant atubular glomeruli,(More)
Severe GN involves local neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. We hypothesized a local cytotoxic effect of NET-related histone release in necrotizing GN. In vitro, histones from calf thymus or histones released by neutrophils undergoing NETosis killed glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, and parietal epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner.(More)
Intrarenal crystals trigger inflammation and renal cell necroptosis, processes that involve TNF receptor (TNFR) signaling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that TNFRs also have a direct role in tubular crystal deposition and progression of hyperoxaluria-related CKD. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed upregulated tubular expression of TNFR1 and TNFR2 in(More)
Crystals cause injury in numerous disorders, and induce inflammation via the NLRP3 inflammasome, however, it remains unclear how crystals induce cell death. Here we report that crystals of calcium oxalate, monosodium urate, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and cystine trigger caspase-independent cell death in five different cell types, which is blocked by(More)
A spectrum of both radiosensitive and radio-resistant lesions occurs in the region of the posterior third ventricle (PTV). Most of these are associated with hydrocephalus requiring a cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedure. The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy (ETV) in these patients. Twenty-four(More)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is characterized by glomerular necroinflammation and crescent formation. Its treatment includes unspecific and toxic agents; therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is required. The E3-ubiquitin ligase murine double minute (MDM)-2 is a nonredundant element of NF-κB signaling and the negative(More)