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RC4 has been the most popular stream cipher in the history of symmetric key cryptography. Its internal state contains a permutation over all possible bytes from 0 to 255, and it attempts to generate a pseudo-random sequence of bytes (called keystream) by extracting elements of this permutation. Over the last twenty years, numerous cryptanalytic results on(More)
Design of secure lightweight stream ciphers is an important area in cryptographic hardware & embedded systems and a very recent design by Armknecht and Mikhalev (FSE 2015) has received serious attention that uses shorter internal state and still claims to resist the time-memory-data-tradeoff (TMDTO) attacks. An instantiation of this design paradigm is the(More)
The 32-bit MAC of Grain-128a is a linear combination of the first 64 and then the alternative keystream bits. In this paper we describe a successful differential fault attack on Grain-128a, in which we recover the secret key by observing the correct and faulty MACs of certain chosen messages. The attack works due to certain properties of the Boolean(More)
In this paper, we analyze how to calculate the GCD of <i>k</i> ( &#x2265; 2) many large integers, given their approximations. This problem is known as the approximate integer common divisor problem in literature. Two versions of the problem, presented by Howgrave-Graham in CaLC 2001, turn out to be special cases of our analysis when <i>k</i> = 2. We relate(More)
The Modular Inversion Hidden Number Problem (MIHNP) was introduced by Boneh, Halevi and Howgrave-Graham in Asiacrypt 2001 (BHH'01). They provided two heuris-tics-in Method I, two-third of the output bits are required to solve the problem, whereas the more efficient heuristic (Method II) requires only one-third of the bits of the output. After more than a(More)
Site-directed spin labeling and EPR spectroscopy offer accurate, sensitive tools for the characterization of structure and function of macromolecules and their assemblies. A new rigid spin label, spirocyclohexyl nitroxide alpha-amino acid and its N-(9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl) derivative, have been synthesized, which exhibit slow enough spin-echo dephasing(More)