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Echolocating organisms represent their external environment using reflected auditory information from emitted vocalizations. This ability, long known in various non-human species, has also been documented in some blind humans as an aid to navigation, as well as object detection and coarse localization. Surprisingly, our understanding of the basic acuity(More)
Compared with the echolocation performance of a blind expert, sighted novices rapidly learned size and position discrimination with surprising precision. We use a novel task to characterize the population distribution of echolocation skill in the sighted and report the highest known human echolocation acuity in our expert subject.
The skull is distinguished from other parts of the skeleton by its composite construction. The sutures between bony elements provide for interstitial growth of the cranium, but at the same time they alter the transmission of stress and strain through the skull. Strain gages were bonded to the frontal and parietal bones of miniature pigs and across the(More)
A crucial element of testing hypotheses about rules for behavior is the use of performance feedback. In this study, we used fMRI and EEG to test the role of medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsolateral (DL) PFC in hypothesis testing using a modified intradimensional/extradimensional rule shift task. Eighteen adults were asked to infer rules about color(More)
OBJECTIVE We present a device that combines principles of ultrasonic echolocation and spatial hearing to provide human users with environmental cues that are 1) not otherwise available to the human auditory system, and 2) richer in object and spatial information than the more heavily processed sonar cues of other assistive devices. The device consists of a(More)
BACKGROUND Stereological analysis of trabecular bone structure may reveal information about regional variations in stress distribution, especially in areas like the zygomatic arch in which those variations are difficult to assess mechanically. This study investigates regional differences in trabecular orientation, thickness, and density in the zygomatic and(More)
Number of figures: 7 main, 2 supplemental Word count: 3077 (excluding methods, captions, references). CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license peer-reviewed) is the author/funder. It is made available under a The copyright holder for this preprint (which was not. Summary Perceiving the geometry of surrounding space is a multisensory process, crucial to(More)
Functional changes in visual cortex as a consequence of blindness are a major model for studying crossmodal neuroplasticity. Previous studies have shown that traditionally visual cortical regions activate in response to a wide range of nonvisual tasks (Merabet & Pascual-Leone, 2010; Kupers & Ptito, 2013). However, the underlying computations, while often(More)
The morphology of bony trabeculae can indicate the loading conditions that predominate near joint surfaces. This study reports principal orientation, anisotropy, thickness, separation and density of trabeculae in the mandibular condyle of pigs. Condyles from slaughterhouse pigs were serially sectioned anteroposteriorly (n = 4), mediolaterally (n = 5) or(More)
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