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Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in industrial counties. Recent findings indicate that the autoimmunity is involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. However, there is no autoantibody biomarker applied in a clinical setting for diagnosis and prognosis of AMD. In order to reveal retinal antigens targeted(More)
Chemokines, representing a large superfamily of 8- to 15-kd proteins, were originally discovered through their ability to recruit various cell types into sites of inflammation. It is now clear that these molecules play a much wider role in immune homeostasis, playing key roles in driving the maturation, homing, and activation of leukocytes. In this review(More)
Purified human basophils have been examined for secretion of IL-4 protein and expression of IL-4 mRNA after stimulation with several secretagogues. In general, these studies used a 15-min preincubation with IL-3, before challenge with secretagogues. Under these conditions, IL-4 release averaged 30 pg/10(6) basophils (range 4-70) after challenge with(More)
Allergic conjunctivitis is in actuality a group of diseases affecting the ocular surface and is usually associated with type 1 hypersensitivity reactions. Two acute disorders, seasonal allergic conjunctivitis and perennial allergic conjunctivitis, exist, as do 3 chronic diseases, vernal keratoconjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary(More)
Modulation in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene expression correlates with the inflammatory reactions that occur during graft rejection and autoimmune disease. We analyzed the expression of class I and II MHC genes in the pancreatic islets of prediabetic and newly diabetic BB rats by immunohistochemistry of tissue sections and Northern blotting of(More)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in industrial counties. Its pathogenesis is at least partially mediated by immunological factors, including a possible autoimmune response. To date, only a few antibodies have been identified in sera from patients with AMD. In order to reveal an autoantibody profile for(More)
Expression of cytokine genes in T cells is thought to result from a complex network of antigen- and mitogen-activated transcriptional regulators. CP2, a factor homologous to Drosophila Elf-1 and previously found to be a critical regulator of several viral and cellular genes in response to developmental signals, is rapidly activated in T helper (Th) cells in(More)
Chemokine receptors (CCRs) are important co-stimulatory molecules found on many blood cells and associated with various diseases. The expression and function of CCRs on mast cells has been quite controversial. In this study, we report for the first time that murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) express messenger RNA and protein for CCR1. BMMC(More)
BCL-6 is a POZ domain zinc-finger transcription factor that appears to play important roles in the development of the immune system and its regulation. Mutations within BCL-6 gene can therefore contribute to the genesis of a variety of lymphomas, and can also manifest as a classic Th2-type hyperimmune response. In addition to its roles in B- and T-cell(More)
Activation of individual CD4+ T cells results in differential lymphokine expression: interleukin 2 (IL-2) is preferentially produced by T helper type 1 (TH1) cells, which are involved in cell-mediated immune responses, whereas IL-4 is synthesized by TH2 cells, which are essential for humoral immunity. The Ca(2+)-dependent factor NF-ATp plays a key role in(More)