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Adipocytes secrete a variety of bioactive molecules that affect the insulin sensitivity of other tissues. We now show that the abundance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA in adipose tissue and the plasma concentration of MCP-1 were increased both in genetically obese diabetic (db/db) mice and in WT mice with obesity induced by a high-fat(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigated whether NADPH oxidase-dependent production of superoxide contributes to activation of NF-kappaB in endothelial cells by the saturated free fatty acid palmitate. METHODS AND RESULTS After incubation of human endothelial cells with palmitate at a concentration known to induce cellular inflammation (100 mumol/L), we measured(More)
White adipocytes are unique in that they contain large unilocular lipid droplets that occupy most of the cytoplasm. To identify genes involved in the maintenance of mature adipocytes, we expressed dominant-negative PPARgamma in 3T3-L1 cells and performed a microarray screen. The fat-specific protein of 27 kDa (FSP27) was strongly downregulated in this(More)
OBJECTIVE Proinflammatory activation of Kupffer cells is implicated in the effect of high-fat feeding to cause liver insulin resistance. We sought to determine whether reduced endothelial nitric oxide (NO) signaling contributes to the effect of high-fat feeding to increase hepatic inflammatory signaling and if so, whether this effect 1) involves activation(More)
Insulin controls glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, and insulin impairment plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Human skeletal muscle and kidney enriched inositol polyphosphate phosphatase (SKIP) is a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate phosphatase family (T. Ijuin et al. J. Biol. Chem. 275:10870-10875,(More)
It has been demonstrated in rodents and humans that chronic inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration occurs mainly in adipose tissue or liver during obesity, in which activation of immune cells is closely associated with insulin sensitivity. Macrophages can be classified as classically activated (M1) macrophages that support microbicidal(More)
Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue is thought to be important for the development of insulin resistance in obesity. Furthermore, the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is increased not only in adipose tissue but also in the circulation in association with obesity. However, it has remained unclear to what extent the increased circulating(More)
Among the pleotropic effects of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is protection against vascular inflammation during high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. The current work investigated the role of the enzyme vasodilatory-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) as a downstream mediator of the anti-inflammatory effect of NO signaling in vascular tissue. Relative to mice fed a(More)
OBJECTIVE Diet-induced obesity (DIO) in mice causes vascular inflammation and insulin resistance that are accompanied by decreased endothelial-derived NO production. We sought to determine whether reduced NO-cGMP signaling contributes to the deleterious effects of DIO on the vasculature and, if so, whether these effects can be blocked by increased vascular(More)
OBJECTIVE Obesity is characterized by chronic inflammation of adipose tissue, which contributes to insulin resistance and diabetes. Although nitric oxide (NO) signaling has antiinflammatory effects in the vasculature, whether reduced NO contributes to adipose tissue inflammation is unknown. We sought to determine whether (1) obesity induced by high-fat (HF)(More)