Sanna Hämäläinen

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The ability to positively affect host health through the modulation of the immune response is a feature of increasing importance in measuring the probiotic potential of a bacterial strain. However, the identities of the bacterial cell components involved in cross talk with immune cells remain elusive. In this study, we characterized the dairy strain(More)
Enterovirus infections are usually mild but can also cause severe illnesses and play a role in chronic diseases, such as cardiomyopathies and type 1 diabetes. Host response to the invading virus can markedly modulate the course of the infection, and this response varies between individuals due to the polymorphism of immune response genes. However, it is(More)
The use of proper bacterial strains as probiotics for the pharyngeal mucosa is a potential prophylactic strategy for upper respiratory tract infections. In this context, we characterized in vitro the functional and immunomodulatory properties of the strains Lactobacillus helveticus MIMLh5 and Streptococcus salivarius ST3 that were selected during previous(More)
The proprotein convertase enzyme FURIN processes immature pro-proteins into functional end- products. FURIN is upregulated in activated immune cells and it regulates T-cell dependent peripheral tolerance and the Th1/Th2 balance. FURIN also promotes the infectivity of pathogens by activating bacterial toxins and by processing viral proteins. Here, we(More)
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and IL-7 are related cytokines that mediate growth and differentiation events in the immune system. They signal through IL-7Rα-containing receptors. Target cells of TSLP in Th2 responses include CD4 T cells and dendritic cells (DCs). Although it has been reported that expression of TSLP receptor (TSLPR) on CD4 T cells is(More)
Interleukin-7 is a homeostatic cytokine that contributes to the maintenance of the T cell pool. It also has proinflammatory effects and is involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Due to its homeostatic effects, IL-7 has been proposed as a potential rejuvenation factor for the elderly immune system. We analyzed the correlation of plasma IL-7(More)
The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin enzymes proteolytically convert immature proproteins into bioactive molecules, and thereby they serve as key regulators of cellular homeostasis. The archetype proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin, FURIN, is a direct target gene of the IL-12/STAT4 pathway and it is upregulated in Th1 cells. We have previously(More)
We examined whether regulation of glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFA), the rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine pathway, is tissue specific and if so whether such regulation occurs at the level of gene expression. We compared GFA activity and expression and levels of UDP-hexosamines and UDP-hexoses between insulin-sensitive (liver and(More)
2-deoxyglucose has been widely used to quantitate tissue glucose uptake in vivo, assuming that 2-deoxyglucose is transported and phosphorylated but not further metabolized. We examined the validity of this assumption by infusing [3-3H]glucose and 2-[1-14C]deoxyglucose in a similar primed continuous fashion to chronically catheterized, freely moving rats(More)