Sankar Swaminathan

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In this paper we show that transcription factors Ets-1 and Ets-2 recruit transcription adapter proteins p300 and CBP (cAMP-responsive element-binding protein) during the transcriptional activation of the human stromelysin promoter, which contains palindromic Ets-binding sites. Ets-2 and p300/CBP exist as a complex in vivo. Two regions of p300/CBP between(More)
Splicing and posttranscriptional processing of eukaryotic gene transcripts are linked to their nuclear export and cytoplasmic expression. Unspliced pre-mRNAs and intronless transcripts are thus inherently poorly expressed. Nevertheless, human and animal viruses encode essential genes as single open reading frames or in the intervening sequences of other(More)
Homologs of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) SM protein exist in several human and nonhuman herpesviruses. Structure and function differ significantly among these proteins. We have cloned and characterized the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) gene, KS-SM, which is homologous to the EBV SM and herpes simplex virus ICP27 genes, from an HHV8-infected primary effusion(More)
The ORF57 gene of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes a nuclear protein expressed during the lytic phase of KSHV replication. An ORF57 homolog is present in all known human herpesviruses and many animal herpesviruses. Many of these proteins have been demonstrated to have essential transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory(More)
Viruses utilize numerous mechanisms to counteract the host's immune response. Interferon production is a major component of the host antiviral response. Many viruses, therefore, produce proteins or RNA molecules that inhibit interferon-induced signal transduction pathways and their associated antiviral effects. Surprisingly, some viruses directly induce(More)
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human herpesvirus that causes Kaposi's sarcoma and is associated with the development of lymphoproliferative diseases. KSHV reactivation from latency and virion production is dependent on efficient transcription of over eighty lytic cycle genes and viral DNA replication. CTCF and cohesin, cellular proteins(More)
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion B-cell lymphoma. KSHV induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) early during infection of human dermal microvascular endothelial (HMVEC-d) cells that are critical for virus entry. One of the downstream targets of ROS is nuclear factor E2-related(More)
Cells use the interferon-induced, double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR as a defense against virus infections. Upon activation, PKR phosphorylates and thereby inactivates the protein synthesis initiation factor eIF-2, resulting in the cessation of protein synthesis. Viruses have evolved various strategies to counteract this cellular defense. In(More)