Sanjoy Roychowdhury

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Cutaneous drug reactions (CDR) are responsible for numerous minor to life-threatening complications. Though the exact mechanism for CDR is not completely understood, evidence suggests that bioactivation of drugs to reactive oxygen or nitrogen species is an important factor in the initiation of these reactions. Several CDR-inducing drugs having an arylamine(More)
Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and dapsone (4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone, DDS) are believed to mediate their adverse effects subsequent to bioactivation to their respective arylhydroxylamine and arylnitroso metabolites, resulting in covalent adduct formation with intracellular proteins. Various bioactivating enzymes, such as cytochromes P450 and myeloperoxidase,(More)
Arylamine compounds, such as sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and dapsone (DDS), are metabolized in epidermal keratinocytes to arylhydroxylamine metabolites that auto-oxidize to arylnitroso derivatives, which in turn bind to cellular proteins and can act as antigens/immunogens. Previous studies have demonstrated that neither cytochromes P450 nor cyclooxygenases(More)
Cutaneous drug reactions (CDRs) are among the most common adverse drug reactions and are responsible for numerous minor to life-threatening complications. Several arylamine drugs, such as sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and dapsone (DDS), undergo bioactivation, resulting in adduction to cellular proteins. These adducted proteins may initiate the immune response that(More)
Cutaneous drug reactions (CDRs) associated with sulfonamides are believed to be mediated through the formation of reactive metabolites that result in cellular toxicity and protein haptenation. We evaluated the bioactivation and toxicity of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and dapsone (DDS) in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). Incubation of cells with DDS or its(More)
Cutaneous drug reactions (CDRs) are the most commonly reported adverse drug reactions. These reactions can range from mildly discomforting to life threatening. CDRs can arise either from immunological or nonimmunological mechanisms, though the preponderance of evidence suggests an important role for immunological responses. Some cutaneous eruptions appear(More)
Skin is the most frequent target of adverse drug reactions. These cutaneous drug reactions (CDRs) show varied clinical manifestations ranging from mildly discomforting rashes to life-threatening Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis. Most CDRs appear to be immune mediated, although the mechanism by which they are initiated remains unclear.(More)
Bioactivation of sulfonamides and the subsequent formation of haptenated proteins is believed to be a critical step in the development of hypersensitivity reactions to these drugs. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that the presence of such adducts in dendritic cells (DCs) migrating to draining lymph nodes is essential for the development of cutaneous(More)
Sulfonamide- and sulfone-induced hypersensitivity reactions are thought to be mediated through bioactivation of parent drug molecule(s) to their respective reactive metabolite(s). Recent studies have demonstrated that keratinocytes can bioactivate sulfonamides and sulfones. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hapten-specific rabbit antisera(More)
Bioactivation of parent drug to reactive metabolite(s) followed by protein haptenation has been suggested to be a critical step in the elicitation of cutaneous drug reactions. Although liver is believed to be the primary organ of drug bioactivation quantitatively, other organs including skin may also metabolize drugs. Cultured human epidermal keratinocytes(More)