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Lymphoid follicles are B-cell-rich compartments of lymphoid organs that function as sites of B-cell antigen encounter and differentiation. CXC chemokine receptor-5 (CXCR5) is required for B-cell migration to splenic follicles, but the requirements for homing to B-cell areas in lymph nodes remain to be defined. Here we show that lymph nodes contain two types(More)
Lymphoid tissue development is associated with local accumulation of CD4 ϩ CD3 Ϫ IL-7R ␣ hi hematopoietic cells that deliver lymphotoxin (LT) ␣ 1 ␤ 2 signals to resident stromal cells. Previous studies have established an important role for CXCL13 (BLC) in the development of Peyer's patches (PP) and some peripheral lymph nodes (LNs), but the chemokine(More)
Ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs) are often induced at sites of chronic inflammation. They typically contain various hematopoietic cell types, high endothelial venules, and follicular dendritic cells; and are organized in lymph node-like structures. Although fibroblastic stromal cells may play a role in TLT induction and persistence, they have(More)
Directional guidance of cells via gradients of chemokines is considered crucial for embryonic development, cancer dissemination, and immune responses. Nevertheless, the concept still lacks direct experimental confirmation in vivo. Here, we identify endogenous gradients of the chemokine CCL21 within mouse skin and show that they guide dendritic cells toward(More)
Despite their widespread expression, the in vivo recruitment activities of CCL19 (EBV-induced molecule 1 ligand chemokine) and CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) have not been established. Furthermore, although CXCL13 (B lymphocyte chemoattractant) has been shown to induce lymphoid neogenesis through induction of lymphotoxin (LT)alpha1beta2, it is(More)
Autoimmune diabetes mellitus in humans is characterized by immunological destruction of pancreatic beta islet cells. We investigated the circumstances under which CD8(+) T cells specific for pancreatic beta-islet antigens induce disease in mice expressing lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein (GP) as a transgene under the control of the rat(More)
Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV[SW]) encodes a superantigen expressed by infected B cells. It evokes an antibody response specific for viral envelope protein, indicating selective activation of antigen-specific B cells. The response to MMTV(SW) in draining lymph nodes was compared with the response to haptenated chicken gamma globulin (NP-CGG) using flow(More)
Adaptive immune responses are initiated when T cells encounter antigen on dendritic cells (DC) in T zones of secondary lymphoid organs. T zones contain a 3-dimensional scaffold of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC) but currently it is unclear how FRC influence T cell activation. Here we report that FRC lines and ex vivo FRC inhibit T cell proliferation but(More)
The respective production of specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G2a or IgG1 within 5 d of primary immunization with Swiss type mouse mammary tumor virus [MMTV(SW)] or haptenated protein provides a model for the development of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 responses. The antibody-producing cells arise from cognate T cell B cell interaction, revealed by the respective(More)
It is well established that Notch signaling plays a critical role at multiple stages of T cell development and activation. However, detailed analysis of the cellular and molecular events associated with Notch signaling in T cells is hampered by the lack of reagents that can unambiguously measure cell surface Notch receptor expression. Using novel rat mAbs(More)