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Artemisinins are extracted from sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua) and are the most potent antimalarials available, rapidly killing all asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Artemisinins are sesquiterpene lactones widely used to treat multidrug-resistant malaria, a disease that annually claims 1 million lives. Despite extensive clinical and laboratory(More)
BACKGROUND The borders of Thailand harbour the world's most multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. In 1984 mefloquine was introduced as treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria, but substantial resistance developed within 6 years. A combination of artesunate with mefloquine now cures more than 95% of acute infections. For both treatment(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a highly conserved water channel protein. In rats, AQP4 is expressed in astrocyte foot processes and is important in brain water homeostasis. AQP4 expression has not been investigated in non-neoplastic human brain or oedematous brain tumours, where water homeostasis is disrupted. Therefore, immunohistochemistry was used to study AQP4(More)
Rapid diagnosis and accurate quantification of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia are important for the management of malaria. The assessment of disease severity also depends on evaluation of metabolic indexes such as blood glucose and lactate concentrations. Here we describe an accurate and rapid alternative to conventional thick film examination (Lambaréné(More)
Aquaporin 1 is a water channel protein. There was little aquaporin 1 immunoreactivity in normal brain parenchyma. In astrocytomas, aquaporin 1 was expressed in microvessel endothelia and neoplastic astrocytes. In metastatic carcinomas, aquaporin 1 was present in microvessel endothelia and reactive astrocytes. Aquaporin 1 may participate in the formation of(More)
Infections with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum result in more than 1 million deaths each year worldwide. Deciphering the evolutionary history and genetic variation of P. falciparum is critical for understanding the evolution of drug resistance, identifying potential vaccine candidates and appreciating the effect of parasite variation on(More)
We report the first detailed pharmacokinetic assessment of intrarectal (i.r.) artesunate (ARS) in African children. Artesunate was given intravenously (i.v.; 2.4 mg/kg of body weight) and i.r. (10 or 20 mg/kg formulated as 50- or 200-mg suppositories [Rectocaps]) in a crossover study design to 34 Ghanaian children with moderate falciparum malaria. The(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the major water channel in the brain, expressed predominantly in astroglial cell membranes. Initial studies in AQP4-deficient mice showed reduced cellular brain edema following water intoxication and ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that AQP4 deletion would have the opposite effect (increased brain swelling) in vasogenic (noncellular)(More)
The trypanosomiases consist of a group of important animal and human diseases caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma. In sub-Saharan Africa, the final decade of the 20th century witnessed an alarming resurgence in sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis). In South and Central America, Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis)(More)
The speed and stage specificity of antimalarial drug action on the metabolic activities of cultured Plasmodium falciparum were studied for chloroquine (CQ), quinine (QN), artemisinin (AR), and sodium artelinate (SA). CQ had the most rapid onset of action on [3H]hypoxanthine and [3H]isoleucine uptake, reaching 50% of its maximum effect in 1.8 hr compared(More)