Sanjay Warrier

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Estrogen acts through two molecularly distinct receptors termed estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) which bind estradiol with similar affinities and mediate the effects of estrogen throughout the body. ERα plays a major role in reproductive physiology and behavior, and mediates classic estrogen signaling in such tissues as the(More)
AIMS Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients generally have a poor outcome; there is a pressing need to identify more effective therapeutic strategies. Clinical trials targeting programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD1/PDL1) in melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer have reported high response rates, and tumoral PDL1 expression has been(More)
Breast implant infections and their associated inflammatory response can have severe consequences, such as the loss of the prosthesis and cavity, or extensive scarring. Negative pressure wound therapy has been indicated for the management of implant infections. This report describes situations where negative pressure wound therapy was used in conjunction(More)
INTRODUCTION Phyllodes tumours are rare fibroepithelial malignancies of the breast, accounting for less than 1% of malignant breast tumours. Further malignant differentiation of phyllodes tumours can occur, resulting in cases of extremely rare heterologous sarcomatous differentiation. PRESENTATION OF CASE Two females in their fifties were diagnosed with(More)
Adenomyoepithelioma (AME) with microglandular adenosis-like growth pattern and superimposed ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was identified in a 55-year-old female after biopsy of an atypical lesion identified through routine breast screening. A literature review reveals that this association has rarely been described.
AIM Retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPSs) are large, rare tumors. The role of core biopsy for retroperitoneal masses identified by preoperative imaging is unclear and we report the safety and accuracy of core biopsies at a specialized sarcoma unit in Sydney, Australia. METHODS A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database was performed to(More)
BACKGROUND The use of the transpelvic vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap in pelvic reconstruction is well documented. It can be used to fill large defects after pelvic exenteration, reconstruct the vagina and provide skin coverage in perineal reconstruction. This study examines an alternate prepelvic pathway for the flap to enhance its(More)
PURPOSE Management of the ICBN during axillary dissection is controversial and the division of ICBN is often trivialised. The effect of dividing the ICBN, and its association with sensory disturbance, is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of preserving the ICBN during axillary dissection. METHODS A(More)
This article provides an overview of the main controversies in a number of key areas of breast cancer management. Relevant studies that have contributed to guide the treatment of this heterogeneous disease in the field of breast screening, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are highlighted. Mammography and ultrasound are the main methods of breast(More)