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Tariquidar was developed as a specific inhibitor of the efflux transporter ABCB1. Recent positron emission tomographic brain imaging studies using [(11)C]tariquidar to measure ABCB1 (P-gp, P-glycoprotein) density in mice indicate that the inhibitor may not be as specific as previously thought. We examined its selectivity as an inhibitor and a substrate for(More)
For PET imaging of 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a biomarker of neuroinflammation, most second-generation radioligands are sensitive to the single nucleotide polymorphism rs6971; however, this is probably not the case for the prototypical agent 11C-PK11195 (11C-labeled N-butan-2-yl-1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methylisoquinoline-3-carboxamide), which has a(More)
The radiotracer [(11)C]N-desmethyl-loperamide (dLop) images the in vivo function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a transporter that blocks the entry of drugs that are substrates into brain. When P-gp is inhibited, [(11)C]dLop, a potent opiate agonist, enters and becomes trapped in the brain. This trapping is beneficial from an imaging perspective, because it(More)
Positron emission tomography (PET) has growing importance as a molecular imaging technique in clinical research and drug development. Methods for producing PET radiotracers utilizing cyclotron-produced [(18)F]fluoride ion (t1/2 = 109.7 min) without the need for complete removal of irradiated target [(18)O]water and addition of cryptand are keenly sought for(More)
Rapid and direct: the carboxylation of boronic acid esters with (11)CO(2) provides [(11)C]carboxylic acids as a convenient entry into [(11)C]esters and [(11)C]amides. This conversion of boronates is tolerant to diverse functional groups (e.g., halo, nitro, or carbonyl).
Basic studies exploring the importance of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) cascade in major depressive disorder (MDD) have noted that the cAMP cascade is downregulated in MDD and upregulated by antidepressant treatment. We investigated cAMP cascade activity by using 11C-(R)-rolipram to image phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) in unmedicated MDD patients(More)
3-Fluoro-1-((thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)benzenes constitute an important class of high-affinity metabotropic glutamate subtype 5 receptor (mGluR5) ligands, some of which have been labeled with fluorine-18 (t(1/2) = 109.7 min), to provide radioligands for molecular imaging of brain mGluR5 in living animal and human subjects with positron emission tomography (PET).(More)
Positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands for translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) are widely used to measure neuroinflammation, but controversy exists whether second-generation radioligands are superior to the prototypical agent 11C-( R)-PK11195 in human imaging. This study sought to quantitatively measure the "signal to background" ratio (assessed as(More)
Translocator protein (TSPO) is a biomarker for detecting neuroinflammation by PET. C-(R)-PK11195 has been used to image TSPO since the 1980s. Here, we compared the utility of four C-labeled ligands—(R)-PK11195, PBR28, DPA-713, and ER176—to quantify TSPO in healthy humans. For all of these ligands, BPND (specific-to-non-displaceable ratio of distribution(More)
A series of colored hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon tagged 1-fluoro-4-alkylamino-anthraquinones and 1,4-bis-alkylamino-anthraquinone probe molecules were synthesized from a (fluorinated) alkyl amine and 1,4-difluoroanthraquinone to aid in the development of fluorous separation applications. The anthraquinones displayed stacking of the anthraquinone tricycle(More)