Sanjay K R Karnati

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We have recently developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to quantify copies of the genes encoding protozoal 18S rRNA. The assay includes procedures for isolating and concentrating protozoal cells from the rumen for use as a standard to convert 18S rRNA gene copies to a biomass basis. The current objectives were to 1) determine the degree(More)
Currently used microbial markers cannot distinguish protozoal nitrogen (N) from bacterial N, thus limiting research on protozoal quantification in vivo by the lack of a repeatable, accurate marker for protozoal N. We report the development of a real-time PCR assay targeting the gene encoding 18S rDNA to quantify the amount of protozoal biomass in ruminal(More)
A protozoa-specific primer (P-SSU-342f) was designed and paired with a eukarya-specific primer to amplify a 1,360-bp fragment of DNA encoding protozoal small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA from ruminal fluid of cows fed a mixed forage:grain diet or alfalfa hay. Sequencing of clones showed that P-SSU-342f is specific to ruminal protozoa and, with slight(More)
The pattern of biohydrogenation of fatty acids from fresh alfalfa or alfalfa hay supplemented with 3 concentrations (0, 4, and 8%) of sucrose was studied at a constant pH of 6.2. Four continuous culture fermenters were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to test the hypothesis that fresh forage would increase flow of vaccenic acid (VA) from the fermenters(More)
This experiment (replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design) was conducted to investigate the effects of lauric acid (LA) or coconut oil (CO) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, ammonia losses from manure, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition in lactating cows. Treatments consisted of intraruminal doses of 240 g of stearic acid/d (SA; control), 240 g(More)
Variation in milk fat percentage resulting from monensin supplementation to lactating dairy cows could be due to altered ruminal fermentation with interactions of monensin with ruminal biohydrogenation of fat and ruminal carbohydrate availability. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding monensin as Rumensin (R) in diets differing(More)
A lactating cow trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of oregano leaf material (Origanum vulgare L.; OV; 0, control vs. 500 g/d) on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total tract digestibility, manure gas emissions, N metabolism, organoleptic characteristics of milk, and dairy cow performance. Eight primiparous and multiparous(More)
The cellulolytic bacterium Ruminococcus albus 8 adheres tightly to cellulose, but the molecular biology underpinning this process is not well characterized. Subtractive enrichment procedures were used to isolate mutants of R. albus 8 that are defective in adhesion to cellulose. Adhesion of the mutant strains was reduced 50% compared to that observed with(More)
Methane is an end product of ruminal fermentation that is energetically wasteful and contributes to global climate change. Bromoethanesulfonate, animal-vegetable fat, and monensin were compared with a control treatment to suppress different functional groups of ruminal prokaryotes in the presence or absence of protozoa to evaluate changes in fermentation,(More)
Increasing the consistency of responses to reduce emissions of ruminal methane and nitrogenous wastes into the environment using microbial inhibitors requires an accurate assessment of microbial community profiles. In addition to direct inhibition of methanogens by feed additives, protozoa are often targeted for inhibition because their close physical(More)