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APOE genotype is a major genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). ABCA1, a member of the ATP-binding cassette family of active transporters, lipidates apoE in the CNS. Abca1(-/-) mice have decreased lipid associated with apoE and increased amyloid deposition in several AD mouse models. We hypothesized that mice overexpressing ABCA1 in the(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor signaling through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is crucial for ureteric bud branching morphogenesis during kidney development, yet few of the downstream genes are known. Here we show that the ETS transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 are positively regulated by Ret signaling in the ureteric bud tips. Mice lacking(More)
and the anonymous JMR reviewers for their helpful comments. Social needs play an important role in the purchase of conspicuous goods. In this article, the authors extend traditional economic models to accommodate social needs, such as desire for uniqueness and con-formism, and examine their implications for pricing conspicuous goods. First, in the context(More)
O nline information servers that provide access to diverse databases where users can search for, browse through, and download the information they need have been rapidly increasing in number in the past few years. Online vendors have traditionally charged users for information on the based on the length of the time they were connected to the databases. With(More)
Gold–style language learning is a formal theory of learning from examples by algorithmic devices called learning machines. Originally motivated by child language learning, it features the algorithmic synthesis (in the limit) of grammars for formal languages from information about those languages. In traditional Gold–style language learning, learning(More)
The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and consequent depletion of striatal dopamine are known to underlie the motor deficits observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Adaptive changes in dopaminergic terminals and in postsynaptic striatal neurons can compensate for significant losses of striatal dopamine, resulting in(More)
The effective practice of supply chain management (SCM) is crucial to improve corporations' competitive advantage. Many corporations have built simulation models to facilitate the application of simulation in designing, evaluating, and optimizing their supply chain. Traditionally, a supply chain involves only a single enterprise with multiple facilities and(More)
In this paper we solve some of the open problems in [19]. We also give partial solutions to some other open problems in the book. In particular we show that the collection of classes of languages that can be identified on " noisy " text (i.e. a text which may contain some elements which are not in the language being learned) strictly contains the collection(More)