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To examine the effect of gender on regional brain activity, we utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a motor task and three cognitive tasks; a word generation task, a spatial attention task, and a working memory task in healthy male (n = 23) and female (n = 10) volunteers. Functional data were examined for group differences both in(More)
RATIONALE Previous functional imaging studies have shown altered brain activity during cognitive task performance in bipolar patients. However, the fact that these patients are often on medication makes it unclear to what extent these changes reflect treatment effects. OBJECTIVES This study aims to identify regional brain activity changes occurring(More)
Dextroamphetamine administration in healthy controls produces a range of subjective and physiological effects, which have been likened to those occurring during mania. However, it is uncertain if these can be attenuated by lithium since conflicting results have been reported. To date there have been no previous studies examining the effects of valproate on(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have suggested that both lithium and valproate may decrease phosphoinositol second messenger system (PI-cycle) activity. There is also evidence that dextroamphetamine may increase PI cycle activity. It was previously demonstrated that dextroamphetamine administration in volunteers causes a region and task dependent decrease in(More)
BACKGROUND It is unknown if medications used to treat bipolar disorder have effects on brain activation, and whether or not any such changes are mood-independent. METHODS Patients with bipolar disorder who were depressed (n = 5) or euthymic (n = 5) were examined using fMRI before, and 14 days after, being started on lithium (as monotherapy in 6 of these(More)
The pathophysiological underpinnings of bipolar disorder are not fully understood. However, they may be due in part to changes in the phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (PI-cycle) generally, or changes in myo-inositol concentrations more specifically. Dextro-amphetamine has been used as a model for mania in several human studies as it causes(More)
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