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Clinically relevant peripheral neuropathies (such as diabetic and human immunodeficiency virus sensory neuropathies) are characterized by distal axonal degeneration, rather than neuronal death. Here, we describe a novel, endogenous pathway that prevents axonal degeneration. We show that in response to axonal injury, periaxonal Schwann cells release(More)
Sensory polyneuropathies are the most frequent neurological complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP), associated with HIV infection, is characterized by length-dependent axonal degeneration of sensory fibres. In rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures, HIV viral envelope protein gp120 results in(More)
Antiretroviral toxic neuropathy is the most common neurological complication of human immunodeficiency virus infection. This painful neuropathy not only affects the quality of life of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients but also severely limits viral suppression strategies. We have developed an in vitro model of this toxic neuropathy to better(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is the most common neurological complication of HIV infection. Currently, the pathogenesis of HIV-SN is unknown. Because there is no convincing evidence of neuronal infection, HIV neurotoxicity is likely to be effected either by secreted viral proteins such as the envelope(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy (SN) is the most common neurological complication of HIV infection in the current highly active antiretroviral therapy era. The painful sensory neuropathy is associated with the use of dideoxynucleoside antiretrovirals, and its development limits the choice of antiretroviral drugs in affected(More)
Transverse myelitis (TM) is an immune-mediated spinal cord disorder associated with inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage. We investigated the soluble immune derangements present in TM patients and found that IL-6 levels were selectively and dramatically elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid and directly correlated with markers of tissue injury and(More)
Progressive axonal degeneration follows demyelination in many neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis and inherited demyelinating neuropathies, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. One glial molecule, the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), located in the adaxonal plasmalemma of myelin-producing cells, is known to signal to the axon and to(More)