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Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009–2013,(More)
Infectious agents are part of food webs and ecosystems via the relationship with their host species that, in turn, interact with both hosts and non-hosts. Through these interactions, infectious agents influence food webs in terms of structure, functioning and stability. The present literature shows a broad range of impacts of infectious agents on food webs,(More)
Network ecology is a rising field of quantitative biology representing ecosystems as complex networks. A suitable example is parasite spreading: several parasites may be transmitted among their hosts through different mechanisms, each one giving rise to a network of interactions. Modelling these networked, ecological interactions at the same time is still(More)
Most of zoonoses are multi-host parasites with multiple transmission routes that are usually investigated separately despite their potential interplay. As a unifying framework for modelling parasite spread through different paths of infection, we suggest "ecomultiplex" networks, i.e. multiplex networks representing interacting animal communities with (i)(More)
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