Sanja Huibner

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Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a cytokine with epithelial reparative and regenerative properties that is produced by Th22 cells and by other immune cell subsets. Therefore, we explored the hypothesis that disruption of the gut barrier during HIV infection involves dysregulation of these cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Sigmoid IL-22-producing T cell and(More)
A rare subset of IL-10-producing B cells, named regulatory B cells (Bregs), suppresses adaptive immune responses and inflammation in mice. In this study, we examined the role of IL-10-producing B cells in HIV-1 infection. Compared to uninfected controls, IL-10-producing B cell frequencies were elevated in both blood and sigmoid colon during the early and(More)
Early and profound CD4+ T-cell depletion in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) may drive Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) immunopathogenesis, and GALT immune reconstitution on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may be suboptimal. Blood and sigmoid colon biopsies were collected from HAART-treated individuals with undetectable blood HIV RNA for(More)
The HIV pandemic disproportionately affects women, with most infections acquired through receptive vaginal sex. Although the target cells by which HIV establishes infection in the female genital tract remain poorly defined, it is known that immune activation results in CD4(+) T cells with enhanced susceptibility, as does expression of the mucosal integrin(More)
Semen is a major vector for HIV transmission, but the semen HIV RNA viral load (VL) only correlates moderately with the blood VL. Viral shedding can be enhanced by genital infections and associated inflammation, but it can also occur in the absence of classical pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that a dysregulated semen microbiome correlates with local HIV(More)
HSV-2 infection is common and generally asymptomatic, but it is associated with increased HIV susceptibility and disease progression. This may relate to herpes-mediated changes in genital and systemic immunology. Cervical cytobrushes and blood were collected from HIV-uninfected African/Caribbean women in Toronto, and immune cell subsets were enumerated(More)
BACKGROUND Identifying the immune correlates of reduced susceptibility to HIV remains a key goal for the HIV vaccine field, and individuals who are HIV-exposed, seronegative (HESN) may offer important clues. Reduced systemic immune activation has been described in HESN individuals. Conversely, pro-inflammatory T cell subsets, particularly CD4+ T cells(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic coinfection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been associated with an increased HIV viral load and more rapid disease progression, perhaps related to HSV-2-associated alterations in host immunity. METHODS Studies were nested within (1) a cross-sectional study of men coinfected with HIV(More)
A better understanding of the cellular targets of HIV infection in the female genital tract may inform HIV prevention efforts. Proposed correlates of cellular susceptibility include the HIV co-receptor CCR5, peripheral homing integrins, and immune activation. We used a CCR5-tropic pseudovirus to quantify HIV entry into unstimulated endocervical CD4(+) T(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the 3% StarPharma LTD 7013 gel (VivaGel) on mucosal immune markers hypothesized to be associated with HIV-1 acquisition. DESIGN Phase 1, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in 54 young women in the United States and Kenya. Participants used carbopol gel with(More)