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Access to graphical images (bar charts, diagrams, line graphs, etc.) that are in a tactile form (representation through which content can be accessed by touch) is inadequate for students who are blind and take mathematics, science, and engineering courses. We describe our analysis of the current work practices of tactile graphics specialists who create(More)
—RASR is the open source version of the well-proven speech recognition toolkit developed and used at RWTH Aachen University. The current version of the package includes state of the art speech recognition technology for acoustic model training and decoding. Speaker adaptation, speaker adaptive training, unsupervised training, discriminative training,(More)
Several semi-supervised learning methods have been proposed to leverage unlabeled data, but imbalanced class distributions in the data set can hurt the performance of most algorithms. In this paper, we adapt the new approach of contrast classifiers for semi-supervised learning. This enables us to exploit large amounts of unlabeled data with a skewed(More)
Recently, semi-supervised learning has been an active research topic in the natural language processing community, to save effort in hand-labeling for data-driven learning and to exploit a large amount of readily available unlabeled text. In this paper, we apply EM-based semi-supervised learning algorithms such as traditional EM, co-EM, and cross validation(More)
Fulfilling the promise of a web-enabled global community means enabling blind web users to access their information and collaborative web services wherever they happen to be on whatever computer to which they happen to have access. Whether they're checking their email at a local internet café, using an airport kiosk to connect with a new business(More)
In order to automate the process of transforming figures in textbooks into tactile format, the types of the figures play an important role in deciding what process to go through. In this paper, we explore the problem of how to train an accurate Support Vector Machine classifier that can determine whether an image belongs to a certain figure type, using(More)
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