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Tuberous sclerosis is a single-gene disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the TSC1 (9q34) or TSC2 (16p13.3) gene and is frequently associated with mental retardation, autism and epilepsy. Even individuals with tuberous sclerosis and a normal intelligence quotient (approximately 50%) are commonly affected with specific neuropsychological problems,(More)
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with mutations in TSC1, which codes for hamartin, or TSC2, which codes for tuberin. The brain is one of the most severely affected organs, and CNS lesions include cortical tubers and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, resulting in mental retardation and seizures. Tuberin and(More)
The tumor suppressor tuberin, encoded by the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) gene TSC2, negatively regulates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which plays a key role in the control of cell growth and proliferation. In addition to naturally occurring mutations, several kinases including Akt, RSK1, and ERK are known to phosphorylate and(More)
We recently identified Pam (for protein associated with c-Myc), as a binding partner for the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) protein tuberin in brain. The highly conserved Pam homologs in Drosophila and C. elegans are neuron-specific proteins that regulate synaptic growth. The Pam gene contains 83 exons and encodes a 4,641-amino-acid polypeptide with a(More)
We examined the potential benefit of gene therapy in a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in which there is embryonic loss of Tsc1 (hamartin) in brain neurons. An adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector (serotype rh8) expressing a tagged form of hamartin was injected into the cerebral ventricles of newborn pups with the genotype Tsc1(cc)(More)
Pam and its homologs (the PHR protein family) are large E3 ubiquitin ligases that function to regulate synapse formation and growth in mammals, zebrafish, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans. Phr1-deficient mouse models (Phr1(Δ8,9) and Phr1(Magellan), with deletions in the N-terminal putative guanine exchange factor region and the C-terminal ubiquitin(More)
Tuberous sclerosis complex is caused by mutations in tumor suppressor genes TSC1 or TSC2 and is characterized by the presence of hamartomas in many organs. Although tuberous sclerosis complex is a tumor suppressor gene syndrome with classic "second hits" detectable in renal tumors, conventional genetic analysis has not revealed somatic inactivation of the(More)
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