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ATP synthase, a double-motor enzyme, plays various roles in the cell, participating not only in ATP synthesis but in ATP hydrolysis-dependent processes and in the regulation of a proton gradient across some membrane-dependent systems. Recent studies of ATP synthase as a potential molecular target for the treatment of some human diseases have displayed(More)
The mitochondrial ATP synthase is a membrane protein complex which couples the proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane to the synthesis of ATP from ADP+Pi. The complex is composed of essential subunits for its motor functions and supernumerary subunits, the roles of which remain to be elucidated. Subunits g and A6L are supernumerary(More)
Due to proliferation of diverse network applications, DoS/DDoS attacks are evolving. Many studies have been performed and implemented in on/off-line network devices such as routers and IDS/IPS. While IDS/IPS is powerful enough to handle deep packet inspection (DPI) tasks, routers are better suited in real-time and line-speed processing requirements. Since(More)
ATP synthases are motor complexes comprised of F0 and F1 parts that couple the proton gradient across the membrane to the synthesis of ATP by rotary catalysis. Although a great deal of information has been accumulated regarding the structure and function of ATP synthases, their motor functions are not fully understood. For this reason, we performed the(More)
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