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Photoperiod is the primary environmental factor affecting flowering time in rapid-cycling accessions of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Winter-annual Arabidopsis, in contrast, have both a photoperiod and a vernalization requirement for rapid flowering. In winter annuals, high levels of the floral inhibitor FLC (FLOWERING LOCUS C) suppress flowering(More)
Winter-annual accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana are often characterized by a requirement for exposure to the cold of winter to initiate flowering in the spring. The block to flowering prior to cold exposure is due to high levels of the flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Exposure to cold promotes flowering through a process known as vernalization(More)
The EMBRYONIC FLOWER (EMF) genes are required to maintain vegetative development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Loss-of-function emf mutants skip the vegetative phase, flower upon germination, and display pleiotropic phenotypes. EMF1 encodes a putative transcriptional regulator, while EMF2 encodes a Polycomb group (PcG) protein. PcG proteins form(More)
Flowering traits in winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana are conferred mainly by two genes, FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). FLC acts as a flowering repressor and is regulated by multiple flowering pathways. We isolated an early-flowering mutant, suppressor of FRIGIDA3 (suf3), which also shows leaf serration, weak apical dominance, and infrequent(More)
The flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana winter annuals is delayed until the subsequent spring by the strong floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). FRIGIDA (FRI) activates the transcription of FLC, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. The fri mutation causes early flowering with reduced FLC expression similar to frl1, fes1, suf4, and flx, which are(More)
EMBRYONIC FLOWER1 (EMF1) is a plant-specific gene crucial to Arabidopsis vegetative development. Loss of function mutants in the EMF1 gene mimic the phenotype caused by mutations in Polycomb Group protein (PcG) genes, which encode epigenetic repressors that regulate many aspects of eukaryotic development. In Arabidopsis, Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2),(More)
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate the transport of RNA and other cargo between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In vertebrates, the NPC protein TRANSLOCATED PROMOTER REGION (TPR) is associated with the inner filaments of the nuclear basket and is thought to serve as a scaffold for the assembly of transport machinery. In a screen for mutants that suppress(More)
In addition to pathways that regulate flowering in response to environmental signals such as photoperiod or cold temperatures (vernalization), flowering time is also regulated by light quality. In many species, far-red (FR) light is known to accelerate flowering. This is environmentally significant because leaves absorb more red light than FR light; thus,(More)
Rubisco activase (RCA) is essential for the activation of Rubisco, the carboxylating enzyme of photosynthesis. In Arabidopsis, RCA is composed of a large RCAα and small RCAβ isoform that are formed by alternative splicing of a single gene (At2g39730). The activity of Rubisco is controlled in response to changes in irradiance by regulation of RCA activity,(More)
during flower development, floral organs such as sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels developed normally. However, the development of pollen inside the anther was disrupted in a stage-specific manner, with floral stage 9 primordia failing to produce any pollen grains. Morphological analyses suggested that heat shock causes a failure of separation of pollen(More)