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The kinetics of retroviral DNA and RNA synthesis are parameters vital to understanding viral growth, especially for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which encodes several of its own regulatory genes. We have established a single-cycle growth condition for HIV in H9 cells, a human CD4+ lymphocyte line. The full-length viral linear DNA is first detectable(More)
EMBRYONIC FLOWER1 (EMF1) is a plant-specific gene crucial to Arabidopsis vegetative development. Loss of function mutants in the EMF1 gene mimic the phenotype caused by mutations in Polycomb Group protein (PcG) genes, which encode epigenetic repressors that regulate many aspects of eukaryotic development. In Arabidopsis, Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2),(More)
BRI1 becomes highly phosphorylated in vivo upon perception of the ligand, brassinolide, as a result of autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation by its co-receptor kinase, BAK1. Important autophosphorylation sites include those involved in activation of kinase activity and those that are inhibitory, such as Ser-891. The inhibitory sites are(More)
Rubisco activase (RCA) is essential for the activation of Rubisco, the carboxylating enzyme of photosynthesis. In Arabidopsis, RCA is composed of a large RCAα and small RCAβ isoform that are formed by alternative splicing of a single gene (At2g39730). The activity of Rubisco is controlled in response to changes in irradiance by regulation of RCA activity,(More)
Bacterial blight (BB) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a destructive disease in rice worldwide. Xa3, a gene conferring resistance to BB at the booting stage of the rice plant, has been characterized previously using map-based cloning. We cloned and sequenced the Xa3/xa3 gene in the Korean cultivars Hwayeong, Ilmi,(More)
Binding of brassinolide to the brassinosteroid-insenstive 1(BRI1) receptor kinase promotes interaction with its co-receptor, BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1). Juxtaposition of the kinase domains that occurs then allows reciprocal transphosphorylation and activation of both kinases, but details of that process are not entirely clear. In the present(More)
Green rice leafhopper (GRH) is a major sap-sucking insect pest that causes large annual yield losses in rice by transmitting the rice dwarf virus or spreading sooty mold fungi. Genetic resistance is the most effective approach to control GRH as well as the spread of diseases. We performed a genetic analysis to detect the GRH resistant region in rice cv.(More)
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