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The emerging discoveries on the link between polyadenylation and disease states underline the need to fully characterize genome-wide polyadenylation states. Here, we report comprehensive maps of global polyadenylation events in human and yeast generated using refinements to the Direct RNA Sequencing technology. This direct approach provides a quantitative(More)
Huntington's disease is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder resulting from polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion (>36Q) within the first exon of Huntingtin (Htt) protein. We applied X-ray crystallography to determine the secondary structure of the first exon (EX1) of Htt17Q. The structure of Htt17Q-EX1 consists of an amino-terminal alpha helix, poly17Q region,(More)
We present a comprehensive map of over 1 million polyadenylation sites and quantify their usage in major cancers and tumor cell lines using direct RNA sequencing. We built the Expression and Polyadenylation Database to enable the visualization of the polyadenylation maps in various cancers and to facilitate the discovery of novel genes and gene isoforms(More)
When the ordinary least squares method is applied to the parameter estimation problem with noisy data matrix, it is well-known that the estimates turn out to be biased. While this bias term can be somewhat reduced by the use of models of higher order, or by requiring a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), it can never be completely removed. Consistent(More)
Small (<200 nucleotide) RNA (sRNA) profiling of human cells using various technologies demonstrates unexpected complexity of sRNAs with hundreds of thousands of sRNA species present. Genetic and in vitro studies show that these RNAs are not merely degradation products of longer transcripts but could indeed have a function. Furthermore, profiling of RNAs,(More)
During fasting and vigorous exercise, a shift of brain cell energy substrate utilization from glucose to the ketone 3-hydroxybutyrate (3OHB) occurs. Studies have shown that 3OHB can protect neurons against excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Neurons maintained in the presence of 3OHB exhibited increased oxygen(More)
The continuing discoveries of potentially active small RNAs at an unprecedented rate using high-throughput sequencing have raised the need for methods that can reliably detect and quantitate the expression levels of small RNAs. Currently, northern blot is the most widely used method for validating small RNAs that are identified by methods such as(More)
The cannabinoid system has been considered to be a potential target of colorectal carcinoma therapy. The aim of this study was to address the correlation between cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor expression and disease severity/outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). CB1 receptor expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using tissue(More)
A normalized subband adaptive filter algorithm uses a fixed step size, which is chosen as a trade-off between the steady-state error and the convergence rate. In this letter, a variable step size for normalized subband adaptive filters is derived by minimizing the mean-square deviation between the optimal weight vector and the estimated weight vector at(More)