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Although aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are housekeeping enzymes essential for protein synthesis, they can play non-catalytic roles in diverse biological processes. Some ARSs are capable of forming complexes with each other and additional proteins. This characteristic is most pronounced in mammals, which produce a macromolecular complex comprising nine(More)
Human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) is secreted into the extracellular region of vascular endothelial cells. The splice variant form (mini TrpRS) functions in vascular endothelial cell apoptosis as an angiostatic cytokine. In contrast, the closely related human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) functions as an angiogenic cytokine in its truncated form(More)
This article provides a brief overview of some of the major concepts and molecular features of plant and animal innate immune systems. The rice pathogen recognition receptor, XA21, confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strains producing the AvrXa21 elicitor. Xa21 codes for a receptor-like kinase consisting of an extracellular leucine-rich(More)
p38 is associated with a macromolecular tRNA synthetase complex. It has an essential role as a scaffold for the complex, and genetic disruption of p38 in mice causes neonatal lethality. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying lethality of p38-mutant mice. p38-deficient mice showed defects in lung differentiation and respiratory distress(More)
BACKGROUND Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major disease that constrains production of this staple crop in many parts of the world. We report here on the complete genome sequence of strain PXO99A and its comparison to two previously sequenced strains, KACC10331 and MAFF311018, which are highly similar to(More)
Genes involved in a viral resistance response in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Othello) were identified by inoculating a geminivirus reporter (Bean dwarf mosaic virus expressing the green fluorescent protein), extracting RNA from tissue undergoing the defense response, and amplifying sequences with degenerate R gene primers. One such gene (a(More)
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight, one of the most serious diseases in rice. X. oryzae pv. oryzae Philippine race 6 (PR6) strains are unable to establish infection in rice lines expressing the resistance gene Xa21. Although the pathogen-associated molecule that triggers the Xa21-mediated defense response (AvrXa21) is(More)
p18 was first identified as a factor associated with a macromolecular tRNA synthetase complex. Here we describe the mouse p18 loss-of-function phenotype and a role for p18 in the DNA damage response. Inactivation of both p18 alleles caused embryonic lethality, while heterozygous mice showed high susceptibility to spontaneous tumors. p18 was induced and(More)
AIMP2/p38 is a scaffolding protein required for the assembly of the macromolecular tRNA synthetase complex. Here, we describe a previously unknown function for AIMP2 as a positive regulator of p53 in response to genotoxic stresses. Depletion of AIMP2 increased resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis, and introduction of AIMP2 into AIMP2-deficient cells(More)
Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etiologies of perineural cysts, but the accurate etiologies remain unclear. We experienced two cases of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts (Tarlov cysts) in one family, who presented with perianal paresthesia. Both of them were operated and(More)