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The rice Xa21 gene confers immunity to most strains of the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of biologically active fractions from Xoo supernatants led to the identification of a 194-amino acid protein designated Ax21 (activator of XA21-mediated immunity). A sulfated, 17-amino acid(More)
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight, one of the most serious diseases in rice. X. oryzae pv. oryzae Philippine race 6 (PR6) strains are unable to establish infection in rice lines expressing the resistance gene Xa21. Although the pathogen-associated molecule that triggers the Xa21-mediated defense response (AvrXa21) is(More)
p38 is associated with a macromolecular tRNA synthetase complex. It has an essential role as a scaffold for the complex, and genetic disruption of p38 in mice causes neonatal lethality. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying lethality of p38-mutant mice. p38-deficient mice showed defects in lung differentiation and respiratory distress(More)
BACKGROUND Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major disease that constrains production of this staple crop in many parts of the world. We report here on the complete genome sequence of strain PXO99A and its comparison to two previously sequenced strains, KACC10331 and MAFF311018, which are highly similar to(More)
Genes involved in a viral resistance response in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Othello) were identified by inoculating a geminivirus reporter (Bean dwarf mosaic virus expressing the green fluorescent protein), extracting RNA from tissue undergoing the defense response, and amplifying sequences with degenerate R gene primers. One such gene (a(More)
AIMP2/p38 is a scaffolding protein required for the assembly of the macromolecular tRNA synthetase complex. Here, we describe a previously unknown function for AIMP2 as a positive regulator of p53 in response to genotoxic stresses. Depletion of AIMP2 increased resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis, and introduction of AIMP2 into AIMP2-deficient cells(More)
Although aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are essential for protein synthesis, they also function as regulators and signaling molecules in diverse biological processes. Here, we screened 11 different human ARSs to identify the enzyme that is secreted as a signaling molecule. Among them, we found that lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) was secreted from intact(More)
p18 was first identified as a factor associated with a macromolecular tRNA synthetase complex. Here we describe the mouse p18 loss-of-function phenotype and a role for p18 in the DNA damage response. Inactivation of both p18 alleles caused embryonic lethality, while heterozygous mice showed high susceptibility to spontaneous tumors. p18 was induced and(More)
Innate immunity provides a first line of defense against pathogen attack and is activated rapidly following infection. Although it is now widely appreciated that host receptors of conserved microbial signatures play a key role in innate immunity in plants and animals, very little is known about the biological function of the microbially derived molecules(More)
PURPOSE To compare the efficacy of single vitrified-warmed blastocyst embryo transfer (SVBT) versus double vitrified-warmed blastocyst embryo transfer (DVBT) according to the day of vitrification. METHODS This retrospective study included a total of 1,051 cycles in women less than 37 years of age with their autologous SVBT cryopreserved on day 5 (5d-SVBT,(More)