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This paper investigates the sampling behavior of the quasi-maximum likelihood estimator of the Gaussian GARCH(1, 1) model. The rescaled variable (the ratio of the disturbance to the conditional standard deviation) is not required to be Gaussian nor independent over time, in contrast to the current literature. The GARCH process may be integrated (a + a = 1),(More)
The rice Xa21 gene confers immunity to most strains of the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of biologically active fractions from Xoo supernatants led to the identification of a 194-amino acid protein designated Ax21 (activator of XA21-mediated immunity). A sulfated, 17-amino acid(More)
BACKGROUND Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major disease that constrains production of this staple crop in many parts of the world. We report here on the complete genome sequence of strain PXO99A and its comparison to two previously sequenced strains, KACC10331 and MAFF311018, which are highly similar to(More)
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight, one of the most serious diseases in rice. X. oryzae pv. oryzae Philippine race 6 (PR6) strains are unable to establish infection in rice lines expressing the resistance gene Xa21. Although the pathogen-associated molecule that triggers the Xa21-mediated defense response (AvrXa21) is(More)
p18 was first identified as a factor associated with a macromolecular tRNA synthetase complex. Here we describe the mouse p18 loss-of-function phenotype and a role for p18 in the DNA damage response. Inactivation of both p18 alleles caused embryonic lethality, while heterozygous mice showed high susceptibility to spontaneous tumors. p18 was induced and(More)
Genes involved in a viral resistance response in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Othello) were identified by inoculating a geminivirus reporter (Bean dwarf mosaic virus expressing the green fluorescent protein), extracting RNA from tissue undergoing the defense response, and amplifying sequences with degenerate R gene primers. One such gene (a(More)
Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates the innate immune response. The rice PRR, XA21, confers robust resistance at adult stages to most strains of the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Seedlings are still easily infected by Xoo, causing severe yield losses. Here(More)
Migration of a disc fragment to the posterior epidural space is rare, especially in the thoracic spine. Only four such cases of posterior epidural migration of thoracic disc fragments have been reported. The authors report a case of 66-year-old man who presented with back pain and right leg weakness due to posterior epidural migration of thoracic disc(More)
We report a single-center experience of 16 immunocompetent patients diagnosed with primary central nervous system lymphoma and treated with monochemotherapy with high-dose methotrexate (MTX) and deferred radiotherapy. MTX was given at a dose of 8.0 g/m2 for induction and at a dose of 3.5-8.0 g/m2 for maintenance. There were eight complete responses (CR),(More)
Xanthomonas is a large genus of bacteria that collectively cause disease on more than 300 plant species. The broad host range of the genus contrasts with stringent host and tissue specificity for individual species and pathovars. Whole-genome sequences of Xanthomonas campestris pv. raphani strain 756C and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strain BLS256, pathogens(More)