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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
Astrocytes respond to traumatic brain injury (TBI) by altered gene expression, hypertrophy and proliferation that occur in a gradated fashion in relation to the severity of the injury. Both beneficial and detrimental effects have been attributed to reactive astrocytes, but their roles after brain injury are not well understood. To investigate these roles,(More)
Mitochondria are the major organelles that produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the main target of ROS-induced damage as observed in various pathological states including aging. Production of NADPH required for the regeneration of glutathione in the mitochondria is critical for scavenging mitochondrial ROS through glutathione reductase and peroxidase(More)
STUDY DESIGN A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE To determine the safety of pedicle screw fixation in thoracic deformity correction. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Pedicle screw fixation enables enhanced correction of spinal deformities. However, the technique is still not widely applied for thoracic deformities for fear of neurologic complications. (More)
Utilizing [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), we studied the correlation between CMRglc and the level of consciousness within the first month following human traumatic brain injury. Forty-three FDG-PET scans obtained on 42 mild to severely head-injured patients were quantitatively analyzed for the determination of regional(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of Takayasu's arteritis (TA) using standardized criteria for diagnosis, disease activity, and angiographic classification, and to identify the predictive factors for remission, angiographic progression, and mortality in patients with TA. METHODS One hundred and eight patients who(More)
Changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) were measured for 30 min following an experimental fluid percussion traumatic brain injury in postnatal day 17 (P17), P28 and adult rats. Under enflurane anesthesia the left femoral artery was cannulated for MABP measurements and a 20 gauge needle was stereotaxically positioned(More)
To determine if a moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained early in life alters the capacity for developmental plasticity, 17-20-day-old rat pups received a lateral fluid percussion and then reared in an enriched environment for 17 days. Compared to sham-injured controls, this moderate TBI prevented the increase in cortical thickness (1.48 vs. 1.68(More)
STUDY DESIGN A retrospective study. OBJECTIVES To determine the indications of fusing the proximal thoracic curve when treating idiopathic thoracic scoliosis with segmental instrumentation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Failure to recognize a significant proximal thoracic curve often results in postoperative shoulder asymmetry due to relative(More)
There is growing evidence of the brain's ability to increase its reliance on alternative metabolic substrates under conditions of energy stress such as starvation, hypoxia and ischemia. We hypothesized that following traumatic brain injury (TBI), which results in immediate changes in energy metabolism, the adult brain increases uptake and oxidation of the(More)