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Biliary stent-related enteric perforations are very rare complications that are caused by the sharp end of a metallic stent, stent migration, or tumor invasion. Moreover, the choledochoduodenal fistula resulting from metallic biliary stent-induced perforation is extremely rare. Here, we report a case in which a spontaneous choledochoduodenal fistula(More)
Dijkstra's algorithm proposed by Edsger Dijkstra in 1959 is mainly used to find the shortest path. However, Dijkstra's algorithm is not suitable on raster data because it developed based on network data and has high computational complexity. In this study, genetic algorithms are proposed to find the shortest path on raster data. In particular, the 2D array(More)
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