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The liver is a central organ that performs a wide range of functions such as detoxification and metabolic homeostasis. Since it is a metabolically active organ, liver is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress. It is well documented that liver diseases including hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma are highly associated with(More)
Previously, we reported that isorhamnentin, a 3′-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin, reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production. The present study further investigated the underlying mechanism of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of isorhamnentin. Administration of isorhamnetin decreased the number of(More)
The objective of this study was to investigate the transport kinetics of cyclosporin A, a well known substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the expression of the transporter in the brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The in vivo transport clearance of cyclosporin A was significantly reduced in diabetic rats(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) and retinoic acid X-receptor (RXR) heterodimer, which regulates cell growth and differentiation, represses the TGFbeta1 gene that encodes for the protein involved in cancer biology. This review will introduce the novel mechanism associated with the inhibition of the TGFbeta1 gene by PPARgamma(More)
Cryptosporidium, a coccidian parasite first described by Tyzzer (1907) from a laboratory mouse, has become an important human enteric pathogen causing overwhelming diarrhea especially in immunocompromised patients such as AIDS. This parasite has been reported from over 20 countries and is recognized as a cosmopolitan species. In Korea, however, there has(More)
Sestrin2 (SESN2) is an antioxidant protein that modulates cellular redox homeostasis through regeneration of peroxiredoxins. It has beneficial effects in oxidative or metabolic stress conditions as an upstream regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Since hypoxia causes oxidative and metabolic stress, this study investigated the effect of SESN2 on(More)
Arachidonic acid (AA, a proinflammatory fatty acid) in combination with iron promotes excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and exerts a deleterious effect on mitochondria. We have shown previously that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protects hepatocytes from AA + iron-induced apoptosis. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in grapes, has(More)
Isorhamentin is a 3'-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin, and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. However, the effects of isorhamnetin on Nrf2 activation and on the expressions of its downstream genes in hepatocytes have not been elucidated. Here, we investigated whether isorhamnetin has the ability to activate Nrf2(More)
4-Methyl-5-(2-pyrazinyl)-1,2-dithiole-3-thione (oltipraz), a prototype drug candidate containing a 1,2-dithiole-3-thione moiety, has been widely studied as a cancer chemopreventive agent. Oltipraz and other novel 1,2-dithiole-3-thione congeners have the capability to prevent insulin resistance via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Arachidonic(More)
Iron-overload disorders cause hepatocyte injury and inflammation by oxidative stress, possibly leading to liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This study investigated the efficacy of sauchinone, a bioactive lignan, in preventing iron-induced liver injury and explored the mechanism of sauchinone's activity. To create iron overload, mice were injected(More)