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In a previous study, we reported that the distribution of inhibitory input, in contrast to excitatory input, decreased somatofugally along dendrites of cat jaw-closing alpha-motoneurons [J Comp Neurol 414 (1999) 454]. The present study examined the distribution of GABA, glycine, and glutamate immunopositive boutons covering horseradish peroxidase-labeled(More)
IRSp53 is an adaptor protein that acts downstream of Rac and Cdc42 small GTPases and is implicated in the regulation of membrane deformation and actin filament assembly. In neurons, IRSp53 is an abundant postsynaptic protein and regulates actin-rich dendritic spines; however, its in vivo functions have not been explored. We characterized transgenic mice(More)
The goal of this study was to analyze the synaptic interaction of primary afferents with GABA- and/or glycine-immunopositive presynaptic endings in the cat trigeminal interpolar nucleus (Vi). Fast adapting vibrissa afferents were labeled by intra-axonal injections of horseradish peroxidase. Postembedding immunogold labeling on serially cut ultrathin(More)
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), responding to noxious cold and pungent compounds, is implicated in the mediation of nociception, but little is known about the processing of the TRPA1-mediated nociceptive information within the trigeminal sensory nuclei (TSN) and the spinal dorsal horn (DH). To address this issue, we characterized the(More)
The microarchitecture of collagen fibrils in the articular disc of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) plays an important role in dissipating the mechanical load during jaw movement. However, little information is available on its adaptations to the biomechanical environment during development. To address this issue, we analyzed the diameter of collagen(More)
Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is an inherited neurological disorder characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower extremities. The most common early-onset form of HSP is caused by mutations in the human gene that encodes the dynamin-family GTPase Atlastin-1 (Atl-1). Recently, loss of the Drosophila ortholog of Atl-1 (Atl) has been(More)
Trigeminal primary afferents expressing P2X(3) receptor are involved in the transmission of orofacial nociceptive information. However, little is known about their central projection pattern and ultrastructural features within the trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclei (TBSN). Here we use multiple immunofluorescence and electron microscopy to characterize the(More)
Trigeminal primary afferents that express the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) are important for the transmission of orofacial nociception. However, little is known about how the TRPV1-mediated nociceptive information is processed at the first relay nucleus in the central nervous system (CNS). To address this issue, we studied the synaptic(More)
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) ligand Glass bottom boat (Gbb) acts as a retrograde growth signal at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Endocytic regulation of presynaptic BMP receptors has been proposed to attenuate retrograde BMP signaling. However, it remains unknown whether the Gbb signal is also regulated by postsynaptic mechanisms.(More)
Retrograde bone morphogenetic protein signaling mediated by the Glass bottom boat (Gbb) ligand modulates structural and functional synaptogenesis at the Drosophila melanogaster neuromuscular junction. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating postsynaptic Gbb release are poorly understood. In this study, we show that Drosophila Rich (dRich), a conserved(More)