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Since the prevalence of bovine norovirus (BNoV) and their genetic diversity have only been reported in the USA, England, Germany and The Netherlands, this study examined the prevalence and genetic diversity of BNoVs in diarrheic calves in South Korea using 645 diarrheic fecal specimens from calves by RT-PCR and nested PCR assays. Overall, 9.3% of the(More)
We investigated the possibility of immunotherapy for multiple myeloma (MM) using myeloma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that were stimulated in vitro by dendritic cells (DCs) pulsing with purified and optimized myeloma lysates. CD14(+) cells were cultured in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4. On day 6, the immature DCs were pulsed with the purified(More)
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is an etiological agent associated with winter dysentery (WD), prevalent in adult cattle during the winter. Although we previously detected, isolated, and characterized BCoV strains from adult cattle with WD (WD-BCoV strains) during the winter in South Korea, the precise epidemiology, as well as the causative agent of diarrhea in(More)
BACKGROUND/AIM Interleukin-21(IL-21) stimulates cytotoxicity and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in natural killer (NK) cells. However, little has been reported on the stimulatory effect of IL-21 on ex vivo expanded NK cells. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production of ex vivo expanded, IL-21-stimulated NK cells against(More)
Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a physiological cellular energy sensor, strongly suppresses cell proliferation in both nonmalignant and tumor cells. This study demonstrates the mechanism of quercetin-induced apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Treatment of cells with quercetin significantly decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent(More)
We investigated the angiogenic bioactivity and therapeutic angiogenic effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) administration by the heparin-functionalized nanoparticle-fibrin gel complex. The markedly increased bioactivity was observed by the VEGF-loaded nanoparticle-fibrin gel complex, compared to the VEGF-loaded fibrin gel, the(More)
Several flow cytometric methods for measuring natural killer cell activity have been developed. Commonly used protocols involve the staining of target cells with various fluorescent dyes. However, these protocols are not applicable to certain experimental settings. Therefore, we used Calcein AM (CAM), which has been reported to be the most suitable dye for(More)
We investigated to establish CD40-activated B cells (CD40-B cells) as alternative antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for the induction of myeloma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). To generate CD40-B cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were co-cultured with CD40L-transfected J558 cells in the presence of IL-4, insulin, transferrin, and cyclosporine(More)
Sapoviruses (SaVs) within the Caliciviridae family are an important cause of gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. Although the widespread occurrence of divergent human SaV strains has been reported, there have only been a few studies of porcine SaVs examining their genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of(More)
Currently, feeder cells are γ-irradiated immediately before use for the ex vivo expansion of natural killer (NK) cells from human peripheral blood. Storing irradiated feeder cells by cryopreserving them in multiple vials would be more convenient than irradiating cells each time they are needed. We compared NK cell expansion using cryopreserved-irradiated(More)