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Chronic viral infections often result in T cell exhaustion. To determine the molecular signature of exhaustion, we compared the gene-expression profiles of dysfunctional lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-specific CD8(+) T cells from chronic infection to functional LCMV-specific effector and memory CD8(+) T cells generated after acute infection.(More)
Heterologous prime-boost vaccination results in increased frequencies of memory T cells. Although these quantitative effects of reexposure to Ag are well documented, little is known about the impact of boosting on the functional qualities of memory T cells. To address this critical issue, we have used three different types of immunization regimens and(More)
Inhibitory receptors play a crucial role in regulating CD8 T-cell function during chronic viral infection. T-cell Ig- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) is well known to negatively regulate T-cell responses, but its role in CD8 T-cell exhaustion during chronic infection in vivo remains unclear. In this study, we document coregulation of CD8 T(More)
Functionally exhausted T cells have high expression of the PD-1 inhibitory receptor, and therapies that block PD-1 signaling show promise for resolving chronic viral infections and cancer. By using human and murine systems of acute and chronic viral infections, we analyzed epigenetic regulation of PD-1 expression during CD8(+) T cell differentiation. During(More)
In the early stages of viral infection, outcomes depend on a race between expansion of infection and the immune response generated to contain it. We combined in situ tetramer staining with in situ hybridization to visualize, map, and quantify relationships between immune effector cells and their targets in tissues. In simian immunodeficiency virus(More)
RNA-guided endonucleases (RGENs), derived from the prokaryotic Type II CRISPR-Cas system, enable targeted genome modification in cells and organisms. Here we describe the establishment of gene-knockout mice and zebrafish by the injection of RGENs as Cas9 protein:guide RNA complexes or Cas9 mRNA plus guide RNA into one-cell-stage embryos of both species.(More)
Suppression of T-cell responses by host-derived regulatory factors is a key event leading to viral persistence. Antibody blockade of either IL-10 or programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) during viral persistence enhances T-cell function and reduces viral titers. Because blockade of these immunoregulatory networks represents a powerful approach to establish(More)
The secondary T790M mutation in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is the major mechanism of acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although irreversible EGFR TKIs, such as afatinib or dacomitinib, have been introduced to overcome the acquired resistance, they showed a limited efficacy in(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the frequency and the prognostic role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) amplification in patients with surgically resected squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL) and the association between smoking and FGFR1 amplification. PATIENTS AND METHODS Gene copy number of FGFR1 was investigated in microarrayed tumors from(More)
BACKGROUND The objectives of this study were to determine the proportions of major oncogenic alterations and to examine survival in genotype-specific subsets of never-smokers with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS The authors concurrently analyzed mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral(More)