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This study investigated the effect of naringin, a major flavonoid in grapefruit and citrus fruits, on the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) projection in a neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease (PD) in vivo and the potential underlying mechanisms focusing on the induction of glia-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), well known as an(More)
Antlers have been traditionally used for thousands of years as a natural product with medicinal and pharmaceutical properties. In developing healthy foods, Bacillus-mediated fermentation is widely used to enhance the biological activity of nutrients in foods. Recently, fermentation was shown to enhance the osteogenic activity of antlers. This study aimed to(More)
The World Health Organization reports that 235 million people are currently affected by asthma. This disease is associated with an imbalance of Th1 and Th2 cells, which results in the upregulation of cytokines that promote chronic inflammation of the respiratory system. The inflammatory response causes airway obstruction and can ultimately result in death.(More)
According to the World Health Organization in 2013, 235 million people are afflicted with asthma. Asthma is a severe pulmonary disease that can be caused by the imbalance of T-helper (Th) type 1 (Th1) and type 2 (Th2) cells, and it is potentially fatal. In this study, we evaluated the anti-asthmatic effect of alginate oligosaccharide (AO), which was(More)
BACKGROUND Interaction of the integrin leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 (CD11a/CD18) with its ligands, the intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM)-1, -2, and -3 (CD54, CD102, and CD50), is pivotal to many leukocyte adhesion events. METHOD To define the mechanism of the movement of leukocytes to the inflammatory site by somatostatin (SOM) and(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the therapeutic effect of crude extract from Platycodon grandiflorum (PG) roots on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS To develop atopic dermatitis-like lesions, 200 μl of 0.3% 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitro benzene (DNCB) in acetone/olive oil (3:1) was applied 3 times a week for 2 weeks on the(More)
Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. (B. kazinoki) has long been used in the manufacture of paper in Asian countries. Although B. kazinoki leaves (BK) have been employed in dermatological therapy, use of BK has not been tested in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Using Nc/Nga mice, which are genetically predisposed to develop AD-like skin lesions, we(More)
Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation may play an important role in the initiation and progression of dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is essential for the activation of microglia in the adult brain. However, it is still unclear whether patients with PD exhibit an increase in TLR4 expression in(More)
Regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (RGS5), an inhibitor of Gα(q) and Gα(i) activation, has been reported to have antiatherosclerosis. Previous studies showed antiatherosclerotic effect of Korean red ginseng water extract (KRGE) via multiple signaling pathways. However, potential protective effect of KRGE through RGS5 expression has not been elucidated.(More)
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and evidence for peripheral glutamatergic fibers in mammals is still lacking. However, glutamate receptors have been identified in peripheral organs, including taste buds, myenteric plexus, and pancreatic islet cell. Protection against anoxic damage could also be explained by(More)