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Butanol is an important industrial solvent and advanced biofuel that can be produced by biphasic fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. It has been known that acetate and butyrate first formed during the acidogenic phase are reassimilated to form acetone-butanol-ethanol (cold channel). Butanol can also be formed directly from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA)(More)
The T-DNA gene-trap system has been efficiently used to elucidate gene functions in plants. We report here a functional analysis of a cysteine protease gene, OsCP1, isolated from a pool of T-DNA insertional rice. GUS assay with the T-DNA tagged line indicated that the OsCP1 promoter was highly active in the rice anther. Sequence analysis revealed that the(More)
Chromosome translocations and gene fusions are frequent events in the human genome and have been found to cause diverse types of tumor. ChimerDB is a knowledgebase of fusion genes identified from bioinformatics analysis of transcript sequences in the GenBank and various other public resources such as the Sanger cancer genome project (CGP), OMIM, PubMed and(More)
In the present study, the underlying protective mechanism of melatonin on kainic acid (KA)-induced excitotoxicity was examined in the hippocampus of mice. KA, administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), induced marked neuronal cell death with concurrent microglial activation and subsequent induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the(More)
Geniposide from Gardenia jasminoides protected neuronal cells from damage in oxygen and glucose deprivation-exposed hippocampal slice culture. Geniposide showed a greater protective effect on the granule cell layer than on the pyramidal cell layer including CA 1 and CA 3. On the basis of the experimental results, geniposide may be a therapeutic agent for(More)
miRGator is an integrated database of microRNA (miRNA)-associated gene expression, target prediction, disease association and genomic annotation, which aims to facilitate functional investigation of miRNAs. The recent version of miRGator v2.0 contains information about (i) human miRNA expression profiles under various experimental conditions, (ii) paired(More)
Protein misfolding and metal ion dyshomeostasis are believed to underlie numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The pathological hallmark of AD is accumulation of misfolded amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and hyperphosphorylated tau (ptau) proteins in the brain. Since AD etiology remains unclear, several hypotheses have emerged to(More)
The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) clinical strain Toledo and the attenuated strain AD169 exhibit a striking difference in pathogenic potential and cell tropism. The virulent Toledo genome contains a 15-kb segment, which is present in all virulent strains but is absent from the AD169 genome. The pathogenic differences between the 2 strains are thought to be(More)
Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the abnormal aggregation of amyloid-β into neurotoxic oligomers and plaques. Although many disease-modifying molecules are currently in Alzheimer clinical trials, a small molecule that inhibits amyloid-β aggregation and ameliorates the disorder has not been approved(More)
Nanofluidic devices make use of molecular-level forces and phenomena to increase their density, speed and accuracy. However, fabrication is challenging, because dissimilar materials need to be integrated in three dimensions with nanoscale precision. Here, we report a three-dimensional nanoscale liquid glass electrode made from monolithic substrates without(More)