Learn More
Parkinson's disease is a widespread condition caused by the loss of midbrain neurons that synthesize the neurotransmitter dopamine. Cells derived from the fetal midbrain can modify the course of the disease, but they are an inadequate source of dopamine-synthesizing neurons because their ability to generate these neurons is unstable. In contrast, embryonic(More)
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells, due to their capacity of multipotency and self-renewal, may serve as a valuable experimental tool for human developmental biology and may provide an unlimited cell source for cell replacement therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess the developmental potential of hES cells to replace the selectively lost midbrain(More)
Parvalbumin-expressing, fast-spiking basket cells are important for the generation of synchronous, rhythmic population activities in the hippocampus. We found that GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic inputs from murine parvalbumin-expressing basket cells were selectively modulated by the membrane voltage- and intracellular chloride-dependent chloride channel(More)
When the two eyes view large, dissimilar patterns that induce binocular rivalry, alternating waves of visibility are experienced as one pattern sweeps the other out of conscious awareness. Here we combine psychophysics with functional magnetic resonance imaging to show tight linkage between dynamics of perceptual waves during rivalry and neural events in(More)
Binocular rivalry has been used to investigate neural correlates of visual awareness. For this investigation to succeed, however, it is necessary to know what rivals during binocular rivalry. Recent work has raised questions about whether rivalry is between eyes or between stimuli. We find that stimulus rivalry occurs only within a limited range of spatial(More)
Lithium has been demonstrated to increase neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of rodent hippocampus. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of lithium on the proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells in hippocampus both in vitro and in vivo. Lithium chloride (1-3 mM) produced a significant increase in the number of(More)
In vitro expanded CNS precursors could provide a renewable source of dopamine (DA) neurons for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease. Functional DA neurons have been derived previously from early midbrain precursors. Here we demonstrate the ability of Nurr1, a nuclear orphan receptor essential for midbrain DA neuron development in vivo, to induce dopaminergic(More)
The future of safe cell-based therapy rests on overcoming teratoma/tumor formation, in particular when using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Because the presence of a few remaining undifferentiated hPSCs can cause undesirable teratomas after transplantation,(More)
During binocular rivalry, physical stimulation is dissociated from conscious visual awareness. Human brain imaging reveals a tight linkage between the neural events in human primary visual cortex (V1) and the dynamics of perceptual waves during transitions in dominance during binocular rivalry. Here, we report results from experiments in which observers'(More)
CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) are not homogeneous but rather can be grouped by molecular, morphological, and functional properties. However, less is known about synaptic sources differentiating PCs. Using paired recordings in vitro, two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in vivo, and computational modeling, we found that parvalbumin-expressing basket cells (PVBCs) evoked(More)