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When the two eyes view large, dissimilar patterns that induce binocular rivalry, alternating waves of visibility are experienced as one pattern sweeps the other out of conscious awareness. Here we combine psychophysics with functional magnetic resonance imaging to show tight linkage between dynamics of perceptual waves during rivalry and neural events in(More)
Binocular rivalry has been used to investigate neural correlates of visual awareness. For this investigation to succeed, however, it is necessary to know what rivals during binocular rivalry. Recent work has raised questions about whether rivalry is between eyes or between stimuli. We find that stimulus rivalry occurs only within a limited range of spatial(More)
Parkinson's disease is a widespread condition caused by the loss of midbrain neurons that synthesize the neurotransmitter dopamine. Cells derived from the fetal midbrain can modify the course of the disease, but they are an inadequate source of dopamine-synthesizing neurons because their ability to generate these neurons is unstable. In contrast, embryonic(More)
During binocular rivalry, observers sometimes perceive one complete visual object even though component features of that perceptually dominant object are distributed between the two eyes and are in rivalry against other, dissimilar features. This interocular grouping cannot be explained by models of rivalry in which one eye or the other is completely(More)
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells, due to their capacity of multipotency and self-renewal, may serve as a valuable experimental tool for human developmental biology and may provide an unlimited cell source for cell replacement therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess the developmental potential of hES cells to replace the selectively lost midbrain(More)
Parvalbumin-expressing, fast-spiking basket cells are important for the generation of synchronous, rhythmic population activities in the hippocampus. We found that GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic inputs from murine parvalbumin-expressing basket cells were selectively modulated by the membrane voltage- and intracellular chloride-dependent chloride channel(More)
The role of collinear facilitation was investigated to test predictions of a model for traveling waves of dominance during binocular rivalry (H. Wilson, R. Blake, & S. Lee, 2001). In Experiment 1, we characterized traveling wave dynamics using a recently developed technique called periodic perturbation (M.-S. Kang, D. Heeger, & R. Blake, 2009). Results(More)
During binocular rivalry, physical stimulation is dissociated from conscious visual awareness. Human brain imaging reveals a tight linkage between the neural events in human primary visual cortex (V1) and the dynamics of perceptual waves during transitions in dominance during binocular rivalry. Here, we report results from experiments in which observers'(More)
In vitro expanded CNS precursors could provide a renewable source of dopamine (DA) neurons for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease. Functional DA neurons have been derived previously from early midbrain precursors. Here we demonstrate the ability of Nurr1, a nuclear orphan receptor essential for midbrain DA neuron development in vivo, to induce dopaminergic(More)
We measured the temporal and spatial profiles of neural precursor cells, hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), and signaling molecules in neurogenesis-induced adult rats. Chronic lithium treatment produced a significant 54% and 40% increase in the numbers of bromodeoxyuridine [BrdU(+)] cells after 12 h and 28 days, respectively, after treatment(More)