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Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) is a culture-independent method of obtaining a genetic fingerprint of the composition of a microbial community. Comparisons of the utility of different methods of (i) including peaks, (ii) computing the difference (or distance) between profiles, and (iii) performing statistical analysis were made by(More)
In Parkinson's disease, the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra leads to debilitating motor dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the dopaminergic neuronal cell death in the substantia nigra and on the dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum of Parkinson's(More)
Wnt signaling stabilizes β-catenin through the LRP6 receptor signaling complex, which antagonizes the β-catenin destruction complex. The Axin scaffold and associated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) have central roles in both assemblies, but the transduction mechanism from the receptor to the destruction complex is contentious. We report that Wnt signaling(More)
Aging leads to functional changes in the hippocampus, and consequently induces cognitive deficits, such as failure of memory. Neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus continues throughout life, but steadily declines from early adulthood. Apoptosis occurs under various pathologic and physiologic conditions, and excessive apoptotic cell death can cause a(More)
The genome of the Gram-positive, metal-reducing, dehalorespiring Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2 was sequenced in order to gain insights into its metabolic capacities, adaptive physiology, and regulatory machineries, and to compare with that of Desulfitobacterium hafniense Y51, the phylogenetically closest strain among the species with a sequenced(More)
Compassion is one of the essential components which enable individuals to enter into and maintain relationships of caring. Compassion tends to motivate us to help people who are emotionally suffering. It is also known that a feeling of intrinsic reward may occur as a result of experiencing compassion for others. We conducted this study to understand the(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin derived from Gram‑negative bacteria, which induces brain inflammation. LPS‑induced brain inflammation deteriorates hippocampus‑dependent cognitive deficits. In the present study, we investigated the effects of forced treadmill exercise and voluntary wheel exercise on short‑term memory in relation to neuronal(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We sought to examine the feasibility of observing the lenticulostriate arteries (LSAs) noninvasively by ultrahigh-field MRI with 7.0T. METHODS We used 3-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography with a radiofrequency coil optimized for 7.0T MRI. We examined the LSAs of 6 healthy subjects and compared 7.0T MR angiography images with(More)
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder of cognition. Behavioral symptoms of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. We investigated the effects of treadmill exercise and methylphenidate (MPH) on activity and spatial learning memory in relation to dopamine synthesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor(More)