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In Parkinson's disease, the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra leads to debilitating motor dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the dopaminergic neuronal cell death in the substantia nigra and on the dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum of Parkinson's(More)
Compassion is one of the essential components which enable individuals to enter into and maintain relationships of caring. Compassion tends to motivate us to help people who are emotionally suffering. It is also known that a feeling of intrinsic reward may occur as a result of experiencing compassion for others. We conducted this study to understand the(More)
Aging leads to functional changes in the hippocampus, and consequently induces cognitive deficits, such as failure of memory. Neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus continues throughout life, but steadily declines from early adulthood. Apoptosis occurs under various pathologic and physiologic conditions, and excessive apoptotic cell death can cause a(More)
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder of cognition. Behavioral symptoms of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. We investigated the effects of treadmill exercise and methylphenidate (MPH) on activity and spatial learning memory in relation to dopamine synthesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin derived from Gram‑negative bacteria, which induces brain inflammation. LPS‑induced brain inflammation deteriorates hippocampus‑dependent cognitive deficits. In the present study, we investigated the effects of forced treadmill exercise and voluntary wheel exercise on short‑term memory in relation to neuronal(More)
Brain inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. We investigated the effects of treadmill exercise and wheel exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with long-term potentiation (LTP) using lipopolysaccharide-induced brain inflammation in the(More)
This study examines the fragility curves of a bridge by two different analytical approaches; one utilizes the time-history analysis and the other uses the capacity spectrum method. The latter approach is one of the simplified nonlinear static procedures recently developed for buildings. In this respect, a sample of 10 nominally identical but statistically(More)
PURPOSE The overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is characterized by urgency usually with frequency and nocturia. Tamsulosin, α(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, is widely used to reduce symptoms of urinary obstruction and prostatic hyperplasia. Tamsulosin can across the blood-brain barrier. We investigated the effects of tamsulosin on the symptoms of OAB in(More)