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Multicasting has emerged as one of the most focused areas in the field of networking. As the technology and popularity of Internet grow, applications, such as video conferencing, that require multicast feature are becoming more widespread. Another interesting recent development has been the emergence of dynamically reconfigurable wireless ad hoc networks to(More)
PURPOSE Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies. Recently, the overexpression of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) has been shown to correlate with poor prognosis in many cancers. However, the expression of PD-L1 or PD-1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) and clinical outcomes have not been fully investigated in HCC.(More)
The On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) is an effective and effwient routing protocol designed for mobile wireless ad hoc networks. One of the major strengths of ODMRP is its capability to operate both as a unicast and a multicast routing protocol. This versatility of ODMRP can increase network effziency as the network can handle both unicast and(More)
PURPOSE Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays important roles in tumorigenesis such as proliferation, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and chemoresistance. We examined the expression of AEG-1 in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS Eighty-five samples were collected from patients with HCC who underwent surgery and were(More)
– We present our experiences in implementing and validating the On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) in a real wireless ad hoc network testbed. ODMRP maintains a mesh for each multicast group to provide multiple alternate paths. Redundancy created by the mesh helps overcome frequent topology changes resulting from node mobility, channel fading, and(More)
Follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm arising from FDCs. The exact origin of FDCs remains unclear; both a hematopoietic lineage origin and a stromal cell derivation have been proposed. Proliferation of FDCs can lead to benign reactive lesions or generate neoplastic conditions. The lesions are most commonly found in(More)
Cystic lymphangiomas of the adrenal gland are rare. A 79-year-old female presented in the emergency room with epigastric discomfort, and an immovable mass was palpated in her abdomen upon physical examination. Imaging studies revealed a large cystic lesion in the pancreatic tail. The radiologic impression ruled out the possibility of a mucinous cystic(More)
PURPOSE Phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) has been associated with metastasis promotion. However, clinical applications of this association have not yet been clearly demonstrated. In this study, we evaluated the relation of PRL-3 mRNA level in primary colorectal cancer to the corresponding stage and to other clinicopathologic factors. METHODS(More)
PURPOSE Although stromal-cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α is suggested to be involved in tumorigenicity and tumor angiogenesis, the clinicopathological significance of its expression in colorectal cancers is not fully understood. We examined SDF-1α expression in colorectal cancers and investigated its relationship to clinicopathological features such as tumor(More)
Internal biliary fistula (IBF) is occurred spontaneously due to the biliary disease in most cases. Bilioenteric, biliobiliary, bronchobiliary, and vasculobiliary type of IBF have been reported in the literature. We herein describe our experience with an incidental cholecystojejunal fistula, a very rare type of bilioenteric fistula in laparoscopic(More)