Sang-Heon Shim

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The discovery of a phase transition in Mg-silicate perovskite (Pv) to postperovskite (pPv) at lowermost mantle pressure-temperature (P - T) conditions may provide an explanation for the discontinuous increase in shear wave velocity found in some regions at a depth range of 200 to 400 km above the core-mantle boundary, hereafter the D('') discontinuity.(More)
Intriguing seismic observations have been made for the bottom 400 km of Earth's mantle (the D'' region) over the past few decades, yet the origin of these seismic structures has not been well understood. Recent theoretical calculations have predicted many unusual changes in physical properties across the postperovskite transition, perovskite (Pv) -->(More)
To help determine the chemical composition of the Earth’s mantle, we characterised the high-pressure mineral assemblage of an undepleted natural peridotite—thought to be representative of the Earth’s upper-mantle—to 107 GPa using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At lower-mantle conditions, the peridotite transforms to the assemblage 76 (F 2)%(More)
Recent studies have shown that high pressure (P) induces the metallization of the Fe(2+)-O bonding, the destruction of magnetic ordering in Fe, and the high-spin (HS) to low-spin (LS) transition of Fe in silicate and oxide phases at the deep planetary interiors. Hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) is an important magnetic carrier mineral for deciphering planetary(More)
The thicknesses and Clapeyron slopes of mantle phase boundaries strongly influence the seismic detectability of the boundaries and convection in the mantle. The unusually large positive Clapeyron slope found for the boundary between perovskite (Pv) and post-perovskite (pPv) (the 'pPv boundary') would destabilize high-temperature anomalies in the lowermost(More)
We performed laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments combined with state-of-the-art electron microanalysis (focused ion beam and aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy) to study the distribution and valence of iron in Earth's lower mantle as a function of depth and composition. Our data reconcile the apparently discrepant existing(More)
The Network performance optimization, configuration depends on proper design of complete network. The network layer is concerned with getting packets from source all the way to destination. The packets may cross many networks to reach the destination. To achieve its goals, the network layer must know about the topology, communication subnets and the version(More)
In this paper, we present a study on the recent approaches in handling Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. DDoS attack is a fairly new type of attack to cripple the availability of Internet services and resources. A DDos attack can originate from anywhere in the network and typically overwhelms the victim server by sending a huge number of(More)
The modern view of Earth's lowermost mantle considers a D″ region of enhanced (seismologically inferred) heterogeneity bounded by the core-mantle boundary and an interface some 150-300 km above it, with the latter often attributed to the postperovskite phase transition (in MgSiO3). Seismic exploration of Earth's deep interior suggests, however, that this(More)
Chemical composition affects virtually all aspects of astrobiology, from stellar astrophysics to molecular biology. We present a synopsis of the research results presented at the "Stellar Stoichiometry" Workshop Without Walls hosted at Arizona State University April 11-12, 2013, under the auspices of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. The results focus on the(More)