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Dose-independent pharmacokinetics of metformin in rats: Hepatic and gastrointestinal first-pass effects.
The low F value of metformin in rats was mainly due to considerable gastrointestinal first-pass effects, and factors affecting protein binding of met formin to 4% human serum albumin were also discussed. Expand
Molecular mechanism of nrf2 activation by oxidative stress.
It is reported that PI3-kinase is responsible for the rise of cellular Ca(2+), which is requisite for nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and contributes to antioxidant phase II enzyme induction via coordinate gene transactivation. Expand
Glutathione S-Transferase Mu Modulates the Stress-activated Signals by Suppressing Apoptosis Signal-regulating Kinase 1*
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that can activate the c-Jun N-terminal kinase and the p38 signaling pathways. It plays a critical roleExpand
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulates nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 through actin rearrangement in response to oxidative stress.
It is demonstrated that the PI3-kinase signaling pathway regulates rearrangement of actin microfilaments in response to oxidative stress and that depolymerization of act in causes a complex of Nrf2 bound with actin to translocate into nucleus. Expand
AMPK Facilitates Nuclear Accumulation of Nrf2 by Phosphorylating at Serine 550
Taking the data collectively, AMPK phosphorylates Nrf2 at the Ser550 residue, which, in conjunction with AMPK-mediated GSK3β inhibition, promotes nuclear accumulation of NRF2 for antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven gene transactivation. Expand
Inhibition of Arachidonic Acid and Iron-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Apoptosis by Oltipraz and Novel 1,2-Dithiole-3-thione Congeners
It is demonstrated that oltipraz and new 1,2-dithiole-3-thiones are capable of protecting cells from AA + iron-induced ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction, which may be associated with AMPK activation. Expand
Role of adenosine monophosphate‐activated protein kinase–p70 ribosomal S6 kinase‐1 pathway in repression of liver X receptor‐alpha–dependent lipogenic gene induction and hepatic steatosis by a novel
Oltipraz was found to inhibit hepatic triglyceride accumulation and lipogenic gene induction in mice fed a high‐fat diet and led to the identification of S6K1 as a particularly attractive target for intervention in hepatic steatosis. Expand
Transactivation of the PPAR-Responsive Enhancer Module in Chemopreventive Glutathione S-Transferase Gene by the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ and Retinoid X Receptor Heterodimer
The molecular basis of PPAR-RXR-mediated GSTA2 induction in the H4IIE hepatocytes is investigated, and it is suggested that these binding sites function as a PPRE-responsive enhancer module (PPREM). Expand
Pharmacokinetics of theophylline in diabetes mellitus rats: induction of CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 on 1,3-dimethyluric acid formation.
Pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline and one of its metabolites, 1, 3-dimethyluric acid (1,3-DMU), were compared after intravenous and oral administration to diabetes mellitus rats induced by alloxan (DMIA) or streptozotocin (DMIS), and their respective control rats. Expand
Resveratrol Protects Mitochondria against Oxidative Stress through AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-Mediated Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Inhibition Downstream of Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-LKB1 Pathway
Resveratrol protects cells from AA + iron-induced ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction through AMPK-mediated inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3β downstream of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-LKB1 pathway. Expand