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We report that visual stimulation produces an easily detectable (5-20%) transient increase in the intensity of water proton magnetic resonance signals in human primary visual cortex in gradient echo images at 4-T magnetic-field strength. The observed changes predominantly occur in areas containing gray matter and can be used to produce(More)
It recently has been demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging can be used to map changes in brain hemodynamics produced by human mental operations. One method under development relies on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast: a change in the signal strength of brain water protons produced by the paramagnetic effects of venous blood(More)
We propose a new blind multiuser signal model and detection framework for solving the near-far problem in synchronous CDMA in this paper. Compared with existing blind detectors, the proposed framework requires a minimum number of previously received signals, which is about the number of interfering users, and no subspace separation or sequence estimation.(More)
The very late-flowering behavior of Arabidopsis winter-annual ecotypes is conferred mainly by two genes, FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). A MADS-domain gene, AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 (AGL20), was identified as a dominant FRI suppressor in activation tagging mutagenesis. Overexpression of AGL20 suppresses not only the late flowering of plants that have(More)
This article reviews the preliminary experiences and the results obtained on the human brain at 4 T at the University of Minnesota. Anatomical and functional images are presented. Contrary to initial expectations and the early results, it is possible to obtain high-resolution images of the human brain with exquisite T1 contrast, delineating structures(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used for imaging brain functions. However, the extent of the fMRI hemodynamic response around the active sites, at submillimeter resolution, remains poorly understood and controversial. With the use of perfusion-based fMRI, we evaluated the hemodynamic response in the cat visual cortex after(More)
Blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important tool for localizing brain functions in vivo. However, the ability of BOLD fMRI to map cortical columnar structures is highly controversial, as the ultimate functional specificity of BOLD remains unknown. Here we report a biphasic BOLD response to visual(More)
Relative cerebral blood flow changes can be measured by a novel simple blood flow measurement technique with endogenous water protons as a tracer based on flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR). Two inversion recovery (IR) images are acquired by interleaving slice-selective inversion and nonselective inversion. During the inversion delay time(More)
A hemispheric asymmetry in the functional activation of the human motor cortex during contralateral (C) and ipsilateral (I) finger movements, especially in right-handed subjects, was documented with nuclear magnetic resonance imaging at high field strength (4 tesla). Whereas the right motor cortex was activated mostly during contralateral finger movements(More)
The functional equivalence of overt movements and dynamic imagery is of fundamental importance in neuroscience. Here, we investigated the participation of the neocortical motor areas in a classic task of dynamic imagery, Shepard and Metzler's mental rotation task, by time-resolved single-trial functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). The subjects(More)