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Formation of single-strand DNA (ssDNA) tails at a double-strand break (DSB) is a key step in homologous recombination and DNA-damage signaling. The enzyme(s) producing ssDNA at DSBs in eukaryotes remain unknown. We monitored 5'-strand resection at inducible DSB ends in yeast and identified proteins required for two stages of resection: initiation and(More)
Saccharomyces cells suffering a single unrepairable double-strand break (DSB) exhibit a long, but transient arrest at G2/M. hdf1 cells, lacking Ku70p, fail to escape from this RAD9/RAD17-dependent checkpoint. The effect of hdf1 results from its accelerated 5' to 3' degradation of the broken chromosome. Permanent arrest in hdf1 cells is suppressed by rad50(More)
DNA double-strand breaks are normal consequences of cell division and differentiation and must be repaired faithfully to maintain genome stability. Two mechanistically distinct pathways are known to efficiently repair double-strand breaks: homologous recombination and Ku-dependent non-homologous end joining. Recently, a third, less characterized repair(More)
End joining of double-strand breaks (DSBs) requires Ku proteins and frequently involves base pairing between complementary terminal sequences. To define the role of terminal base pairing in end joining, two oppositely oriented HO endonuclease cleavage sites separated by 2.0 kb were integrated into yeast chromosome III, where constitutive expression of HO(More)
Saccharomyces cells suffering a DNA double-strand break (DSB) ultimately escape checkpoint-mediated G2/M arrest either by recovery once the lesion is repaired or by adaptation if the lesion proves irreparable. Cells lacking the PP2C-like phosphatases Ptc2 and Ptc3 are unable to adapt to a HO-induced DSB and are also defective in recovering from a repairable(More)
In Saccharomyces strains in which homologous recombination is delayed sufficiently to activate the DNA damage checkpoint, Rad53p checkpoint kinase activity appears 1 hr after DSB induction and disappears soon after completion of repair. Cells lacking Srs2p helicase fail to recover even though they apparently complete DNA repair; Rad53p kinase remains(More)
Saccharomyces cells with one unrepaired double-strand break (DSB) adapt after checkpoint-mediated G2/M arrest. Adaptation is accompanied by loss of Rad53p checkpoint kinase activity and Chk1p phosphorylation. Rad53p kinase remains elevated in yku70delta and cdc5-ad cells that fail to adapt. Permanent G2/M arrest in cells with increased single-stranded DNA(More)
Single-stranded DNA constitutes an important early intermediate for homologous recombination and damage-induced cell cycle checkpoint activation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficient double-strand break (DSB) end resection requires several enzymes; Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2 (MRX) and Sae2 are implicated in the onset of 5'-strand resection, whereas Sgs1/Top3/Rmi1(More)
AIM The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of metastasectomy after nephrectomy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who had not received systemic therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 62 patients were included in the study. The patients were categorized according to their surgical treatment: the metastasectomy group (n =(More)
Broken DNA ends are rejoined by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways requiring the Ku proteins (Ku70, Ku80), DNA ligase IV and its associated protein Lif1/Xrcc4 (ref. 1). In mammalian meiotic cells, Ku protein levels are much lower than in somatic cells, apparently reducing the capacity of meiotic cells to carry out NHEJ and thereby promoting(More)